Tutorial 04

Estimated Reading Time 00:02:33

Tutorial by Josh Curtis

Starting points lecture 9 and 10
Readings in Sociology all: 1,2,3,5,6,14,15,16

3 or 4 different areas that we should focus on
Take a look at these then we shouldn’t have problems with the politics section

Past exam library:

Can’t take them out, but can look them over
Also repository at Robarts (?) or “wherever this room is”

“I found this today.” -Josh Curtis

Exam’s controlled
Only a certain number of exams in each room

33 Reading Sociology
New: section 14 (states and Gov): 4 new chapters
Old: 35 chapters (7 sections)

“Basically one question from every chapter.” – Josh Curtis

There’s 35 chapters, but 20 or so questions. What should be study for?
-Come up with one-paragraph summaries.
-It’s not possible to memorize every single point

35 Starting Ponts
New: Politics/Social Movements

82 Lectures
-Study the slides he hasn’t posted

“If you miss 5 classes, that could be 50% of the exam.” – Josh Curtis

“The easy part is the Starting Points part: every bolded term, memorize.” – Josh Curtis

Multiple choice questions will likely come from:
1)Main arguments of the papers (theoretical or empirical?)
2)The key sociological figures
etc etc repetitive

Chapter 57: Redistribution

Explore the relationship between social expenditures and public opinion
**Main conclusion**: people are affected by the political and economic conditions that they experience but **not by level of social spending per se**

The Debate/Puzzle
–Governments in power maximize chance of reelection by responding to public preferences
–people’s ____ to shape the economy itself

Public spending at its highest in 1990s. Is is what people wanted? (with some graphs to prove the point).

“Something like that, alright?” – Josh Curtis

1)What’s the strongest influence of public opinion?
2)When is public support for welfare spending highest?
3)What factors do not have a strong influence on public..

^ “All pass exam questions.” – Josh Curtis

Chapter 56
“Canada’s Rights Revolution”

Show historically social movements and how the way we research social movements has changed in Canada.

1)What are social movement organizations?
2)Discussion of human rights: a)significant advances, etc
3)What should be done in Canada?

Chapter 58
“Target/Universal Social Policy”
Which type of policy works best?

Target: money just for certain groups that the government say are marginalized.
Universal: free for all.
Canada’s in the middle
Scandinavia’s pretty universal

The paper’s pretty political and the author clearly favours one of these two.

All countries part of EU are part of a unified policy-making group.

Purpose: The problem of declining universalism and its effects on European countries.

Key ideas: EU social policy decisions represents …

States at the outset:
“Capitalists economies cannot function without adequate policy making.”

Neoliberalism: ideology based on the advocacy of economic liberalization and open markets, and deregulation. The government doesn’t have any responsibility. Commodification of labour.

Decommodification: …

Chapter 55: Counting, Caste, and Confusion
Describes who the census have changed in India to overcome the caste system.

Will post the slides on Friday.

Should be fine on this section.


Summary: Random Facts

Still work in progress.

Ctrl + F is your best friend.

Random Facts (from lectures):

  • 6% of everyone who’s ever lived on Earth is alive
  • 4.3 million Canadians aged 12/older were injured in 2009/2010 (15% of population)
  • 63% of seniors/50% of adolescents were injured in falls
  • 27% among 12-to-19-year-old males; 14% adults; 9% seniors
  • 2 billion people lacking water
  • 800 million people in 1750 -> 7 billion now
  • % humans in less-developed countries: 80%
  • Canada: diamond population pyramid
  • Ulrich Beck: risk society
  • Most urban growth: 500 000 citizens or fewer
  • Concentric ring theory
  • Louis Wirth: experience of cities (careful inattention)
  • Charles Perrow: KISS (keep it simple, stupid); more complex technologies more likely to fail
  • Charles Perrow: serious technological accidents result of flawed human organization
  • 2.5% innovators, 16% laggards
  • Merton: CUDO
  • Tepperman: The Dostoevsky Effect
  • Theodicy
  • Social gospel: CCF-NDP
  • 1985+ : Canadians never going to church has risen 50%
  • ~40% American parents believe violence contributes “a lot” to violence in children
  • 90% of top grossing films depict killing in 2000s, compared to 40% in 1940s
  • CBC is a crown corporation
  • Katz and Lasarsfeld
  • The average parent devotes 1 hour every day on caring for children and others
  • 60% of US teens use internet any given day
  • Under 18: 80% active on Facebook, 50% text daily
  • Internet usage increased by 121% from 2000 in CAN
  • Foucault – governmentality
  • Most sustainable: Norway; most failed: Somalia
  • C. Wright Mills: ruling elite theory
  • Jeffery Sachs: happiness study
  • Women form 22% of all MPs
  • Exclusion/decoupling/disability

Summary: Concepts

Ctrl + F is your best friend.

Concepts from Lectures:

  • Positive vs. preventative checks (kill is positive)
  • Mechanical vs. organic solidarity (marines behind tanks; bio after mech)
  • Secondary deviance: career in rulebreaking
  • Primary vs. secondary groups (Cooley, primary more intimate)
  • Nuclear vs. extended family
  • Primary vs. secondary socialization (primary first)
  • I vs. me
  • Manifest vs. latent function
  • Functional vs. substantive definitions of religion
  • Social constructionism vs. essentialism
  • Political science vs. political sociology
  • Traditional vs. charismatic vs. rational-legal authority
  • Authoritarian vs. totalitarian vs. liberal-democratic states
  • Authoritative vs. authoritarian vs. permissive vs. neglectful parenting (Diane Baumrind)

Summary: Names

Estimated Reading Time 00:07:34

The view is often defended that sciences should be built up on clear and sharply defined basal concepts. In actual fact no science, not even the most exact, begins with such definitions. The true beginning of scientific activity consists rather in describing phenomena and then in proceeding to group, classify and correlate them.

Sigmund Freud, General Psychological Theory

Irritatingly, taxonomy is important. While it allows for easy classification, be wary of falling into a overly-reductionistic view. A liberal arts education is supposed to “liberate the individual from the parochialism of direct personal experience“, not do the opposite.

People who aren’t important enough to have their full name mentioned are not included. People at the end of chapters (New Insights) are not included.

Still work in progress.

Ctrl + F is your best friend.


  • Anomie — failure of institutions
  • Studied suicide (egoistic, altruistic, anomic, fatalistic)
  • Pioneered the “sociological method” — quantitative analysis
  • Crime has latent function as social glue, despite its manifest function
  • Common conscience — mechanical solidarity in cities
  • “Civic culture”
  • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life
  • Totemism
  • Collective consciousness <-> religion
  • Shared symbol
  • Organic society: must appeal to common humanity; religion less important.
  • Breakdown approach (for social movements) is based on Durkheim

Screen shot 2013-04-26 at 12.56.28 PM
Figure 1. Durkheim’s suicides: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, fatalistic. (From lecture 1)

Critical Theorist

  • Interested in class divisions and class struggles
  • Vertical exploitation
  • Modes of production — dominant ideology

Screen shot 2013-04-26 at 1.04.23 PM
Figure 2. Marx’s modes of production, all societies inexorably lead to communism.
(From communist university.)

Critical Theorist

  • Critical-ish, interested in status, power, authority, and bureaucracy
  • (For enriching details, here’s something from Duke U.)
  • Groups compete horizontally, through usurpation
  • Case study of Protestant ethic and capitalism
    1. Nature of capitalism = this worldliness
    2. Source = protestantism
    3. QED
  • Charismatic leadership -> routinization of charisma
  • Chaotic -> Lawful
  • Three kinds of authority:
    1. Traditional
    2. Charismatic
    3. Rational-legal

August Comte

  • Founder of sociology

Robert Merton

  • Social theory and social structure
  • Latent functions and manifest functions
  • “Culture of science”

Herbert Blumer
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Social recognition -> social legitimating -> mobilization for action -> development and implementation of official plan

John Porter

  • The vertical mosaic
  • WASPs tend to do better
  • Economic oligarchy
  • Education contributes to upward mobility

Erving Goffman
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Examined stigma
  • Strategies: “passing” + “covering”
  • Qualitative
  • All life is like staged play
  • Dramaturgical approach
  • Role embracement, role distance, role exit
  • Total institution (drastic resocialization) (e.g. jails, monasteries)

Georg Simmel
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Studied urbanization in the 1950s
  • People get numb due to overstimulation
  • Theorized “social forms”
  • Secrecy: “first world” and “second world”
  • Form and content

Anthony Giddens

  • New interpreter of sociology
  • There’s yet room for cultural discourse

Thomas Malthus

  • Positive checks vs. preventive checks
  • Functional because his mention of equilibrium

Ansley Coale

  • Population undergoes exponential growth since 1750+

Ulrich Beck

  • “Risk society”; increasingly chaotic
  • Reflexive modernization

Manuel Castells
Critical theorist

  • “Disposable theory”
  • Social activism is distinct from dominant economic networks
  • “Space of flows” and “flow of spaces” (presumably different?)
  • “Typology of identities”
  • Marxist
  • “Liquid” modernity
  • “Fourth world”

Howard Becker
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Marijuana isn’t intrinsically bad, but people make it bad
  • “Outsiders”
  • Foundation for labelling theory

Charles Horton Cooley
Symbolic Interactionist

  • “Looking glass self”
  • Founder of labelling theory

Ralph Lindon
Symbolic Interactionist

  • People play roles but occupy statuses

Robert Bales
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Study of group dynamics with Parsons
  • Task leader, emotional leader, joker
  • Study of family division of labour with Parsons
  • Breadwinner + housewife
  • Instrumental + expressive roles

Talcott Parsons

  • Statuses central to social order
  • Study of group dynamics and family division of labour with Bales
  • Focuses on top-down socialization
  • Ideal society is homogeneous. Social integration
  • Wrote about politics in The Social System
    • Families, organizations, etc. all have a “goal attainment function”
    • Politics is everywhere

Mark Granovetter

  • Weak ties and sociometric stars

Anatol Rapoport
Mathematical psychologist

  • Mathematical proof of weak ties

George Herbert Mead
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Role taking
  • The “I” and the “me”
  • “Generalized other”: expectations of society — informal social control
  • Playing games is important

Ralph Turner
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Role making

Seymour Martin Lipset
Political sociologist

  • Canadians are elitist, traditional, and collectivistic
  • Wrote Political Man: what social conditions and processes promote democracy?
  • Wrote The First New Nation to compare Canada and USA
    • US is the only ex-commonwealth to have a revolutionary war
    • US founded on a contradiction: equality vs. achievement
    • Religions and labour movement worked hand in hand, one for morality, the other for class awareness and equality
  • Elitism ranking: UK > Canada > Aussies > US

Michael Foucault
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Modern society is a prison, a panopticon
  • Social institutions impose rules upon us
  • “Critical theory of the present”; “genealogical” approach
  • “Bio power”
  • Social scripts + forms control us
  • “Governmentality”: employee transformed to stive for perfection
  • “Technologies of the self”:
    • Self examination
    • Identification of inner impurities
    • Disclosure of the self
    • Renunciation of the self
  • “Neo-liberalism”
  • Wrote The Birth of the Prison
    • Prisons invented to keep criminals out of public attention
    • Record-keeping to control criminals
    • Knowledge used to disempower, not empower
    • Surveillance — panopticon (prison where guards can see prisoners, but prisoners cannot see guards) — leads to self regulation
    • Society is a panopticon — political stability

George Murdock

  • Cultural universals

Antonio Gramsci
Renaissance Man

  • Intellectuals helped alleviate the Great Depression
  • Capitalism maintains control not just through violent coercion, but also through the manipulation of ideas and ideologies — working class much have a counter-ideology

Harrison White and Cynthia White

  • Production of culture
  • Case study of impressionism

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf

  • Language expresses thoughts and structures them

Thornstein Veblen

  • “Conspicuous consumption”
  • Nature of social prestige is wasteful
  • Recommends an austere lifestyle

Pierre Bourdieu

  • “Cultural capital’, taste, “learning of class”
  • Habitus & social field
  • French: class is inherited. Contrast with James S. Coleman.

E.D. Hirsch

  • Cultural literacy is important.

Ronald Immerman + Wade Mackey

  • Monogamy is da best

William Goode

  • “Nuclear family”

Theodor Adorno

  • The “F scale”. F for fascism.

Arlie Hothschild
Critical theorist

  • “Feeling rules” — emotional labour

Christopher Jencks and David Riesman

  • “The Academic Revolution” — research universities stopped caring about their undergraduates

James Samuel Coleman

  • The adolescent society
  • Those dumb teenagers
  • Hey, maybe their parents are dumb and shallow too! (Can be read as critique of American society)
  • Coleman report: schools provide cultural capital
  • American: cultural capital can be acquired in schools. Contrast with Pierre Bourdieu.

John Robert Seeley

  • Crestwood heights
  • Forest Hill teenagers yo. So preppy

Erik Erikson

  • 8 stages of social development
  • Stage 4: latency: age 6-12: develop competence + insecurities
  • Stage 5: : age 12-19: teens. Angsty, rebellious, always “finding themselves”. What can you say?

Sigmund Freud

  • Civilization and Its Discontents
  • Religion is a vessel for repressing sex. A form of Oedipal complex.

Robert Bellah

  • Civil religion: super bowl is like a religious festival
  • We are part of a larger whole
  • Habits of the Heart
  • American’s founding principles:
    • Republicanism
    • Biblical religion
    • Individualism
  • Individualism prevents Americans giving enough attention to the first two principles

Copen and Silverstein

  • How is religion inherited?
    1. Socialization
    2. Social training
    3. Status inheritance

Gerbner and Gross

  • Cultivation theory: mean world syndrome
  • Passive audience

Herbert Gaas

  • Elaborated on GGross
  • Media coverage shaped by:
    • News-worthiness
    • Internal pressures
    • Tastes of the audience
    • Responsibility

Susanna Walters

  • Material girls
  • “The male gaze”

Marshall McLuhan
“Media prophet” (– according to the UofT “Boundless” campaign)

  • Cultural studies perspective

Boxer et al.

  • Media increases crime

High on drugs

  • Hyperreality
  • No, no, no, no matter what you say, the gulf war didn’t happen. No. Stop talking to me! You don’t exist! The world doesn’t exist! I don’t exist!

Katz and Lazarsfeld

  • How do you change people’s minds?
  • Two-step flow of information: ideas flow first to opinion leaders
  • Advertise to opinion leaders

Michael Adams

  • Wrote Sex in the Snow and American Backlash

George Homans

  • Focuses on microstructure of politics
  • Wrote The Human Group
  • “Social exchange theory”
  • “Small group politics” — small groups rule themselves with informal control, like exclusion or ridicule
  • Looked for payoff — why people value such self government
  • Not unlike Erving Goffman

Barrington Moore
Critical Theorist

  • During modernization, if the majority is:
    • middle class: democracy
    • peasant/proletarian class: communism
    • traditional ruling class: fascism

Jürgen Habermas
Critical Theorist (Frankfurt School)

  • “Deliberative democracy”: where citizens actually debate rationally
  • “Communicative action”: rationality must go beyond pure strategy and we must seek mutual agreement
  • “Lifeworld” (invented by Husserl)

Tamotsu (Tom) Shibutani

  • Calls rumours “improvised news”
  • Rumours may carry social truths
  • Studied Japanese-American relocation centre
  • In the absence of reliable info people turn to opinion leaders for guidance
  • Five roles in the formation of rumour:
    1. Messenger
    2. Interpreter
    3. Skeptic
    4. Protagonist
    5. Decision Maker
People turn to opinion leaders for guidance

People turn to opinion leaders for guidance

Gordon Allport and Leo Postman

  • Ran “broken telephone” in a lab setting and got smack-talked by Teppy

Norbert Elias

  • The Civilizing Process
  • Aristocracy -> good manners -> state government

Joseph Gusfield

  • The Symbolic Crusade (the one about 18th amendment banning alcohol)
  • Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and why it failed
  • Threat of the WASP lifestyle
  • I’m missing page 469 so yeah.

Charles Tilly

  • Studied social movements
  • Successful Social movements can aid political causes
  • Job of sociologists: trace the “logic of violence” in the mobilization of social change.

Definitions: Starting Points Ch. 15-16

Estimated Reading Time: 00:01:39

Chapter 15: Politics and Ideologies

Politics: the processes by which individuals and groups act to promote their interests

Citizens: people who belong to a state. Citizenship developed out of the relative freedom of city life, granting equal treatment for all residents.

State: the set of institutions with authority to make the rules that govern a society. Weber wrote that the state “claims a monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”.

Ideologies: coherent sets of interrelated beliefs about the nature of the world that imply or demand certain courses of political, social, or economic action.
(Compare with ideology in Chapter 16)

Power: according to Weber, “the ability of persons or groups to achieve their objectives, even when opposed”. Said another way, power is the capacity to compel people to act in certain ways, and politics is the process by wich people gain and exercise this power.

Authority: power that is considered legitimate by the people who are subject to it.

Propaganda: mass communication whose purpose is to influence people’s political opinions and actions.

Civil liberties: freedoms that protect the individual against government. These include freedom of speech, assembly, and movement, and freedom of the press.

Civil rights: rights we consider all people deserve under all circumstances, without regard to race, ethnicity, age, sex, or other personal qualities.

Chapter 16: Social Movements and Voluntary Associations

Voluntary association: a group formed by voluntary membership. Unlike other voluntary associations, social movements usually have a political goal.

Social movements: organized groups of people with an agenda or plan for social change, to be achieved through agitation and political pressure.

Ideology: a strategy, program, or point of view that justifies the goals and strategies of the movement: for example, it may justify demands for gender equality.
(Compare with ideologies in Chapter 15)

Counter-ideology: an ideology that supports alternative social values and challenges the dominant ideology.

Dominant ideology: an ideology that supports the status quo and the interests of the ruling class.

Week 11 Lecture: Starting Points Ch. 16

Estimated Reading Time: 00:08:17

Voluntary Associations and Social Movements

“When I fist saw you, it’s winter; now it’s winter too.”
Aww Teppy getting all sentimental ❤

“This is ultimately what sociology is about — it’s about what people can accomplish when they get together.” -Teppy

*Lean In* — book by ? from Facebook — career women are limited in how they think.
Teppy’s wife think that the argument above is stupid.

What are we looking for in life?

Ordinary people make history.
Is history made by heroes and prophets?
We are all making history.

What do people want?
— Happiness.
Everyone is in search for happiness.

There are a lot of people who believe that happiness is in buying stuff.
We need to understand — what gives people happiness?

Jeffery Sachs did happiness research.
Humanity would be much happier if
-it focused on alleviating poverty and sickness int he developing world
-instead of focusing on increasing economic output in rich and emerging countries.

Who are the happiest?
-Canadians are among the happiest people on the planet.
-Top prize goes to Scandinavians.
-Most equal people are most happy, it seems.

Happiness does not lie in consumerism. Or environmental destruction.
Economic development doesn’t [necessarily] make you happy and destroys the planet in the process.

“Family life is extraordinarily important to people’s mental well-being.” – Teppy

Estimated Reading Time 00:08:17

Society is a cooperative enterprise
-We work together to further our own interests
-In doing so, we further our collective interest
Beyond that, we adhere to collective values and commitment to a larger entity — ie. society
Shared, mutually rewarding histories of life together are effective sources of control

“It’s a really complicated thing! But that’s what sociology is about. I hope that’s not news to you.” -Teppy

Voluntary associations and social movements bring most change
-voluntary association
(A group formed by voluntary membership)
-social movement
(Organized grope of people with an agenda or plan for social change, to be achieve through agitation and political pressure)

Voluntary associations and sociability
-voluntary associations contribute to social integration
-promote familiarity, common goals, shared experiences
-sociability, pure play, is a basic human desire

“One good thing about voluntary association is that it gives people opportunities to meet strangers.” – Teppy

“Sociability is about fun. Fun is really good. You probably are not having a lot of fun going to U of T. Maybe the fun people are not in class today. You guys are the non-fun people. ;p” -Teppy

Concerns about the decline of civil society through cocooning
-civil society — the society that depends on play and altruism, on clubs, support groups, and voluntary associations
-Has civil society gone into decline?
-Evidence of “cocooning”: going home every night and isolating the world from you

*Bowling Alone* (2000) by **Robert Putnam:**
-Since 1950, there has been a general decline in active civil participation
-most obvious in strong signs of political disengagement
-also, underline of participation in clubs and charities
-People are more isolated and fragmented and communities lose “social capital” and social cohesion
-Putnam credits change to the effects of modern technology

-The popularity of league bowling in the US reached a peak for men in the 1960s
-now in decline
-more people bowl alone

-Have seen similar declines in other activities

-In the last 35 years, there has been a steady decline in home entertaining and dinner parties
-the evidence is still out on this
-why should a decline in voluntary associations matter?

“Bowling, dinner parties, political participation, they are all part of the same thing — the deterioration of society.” -Teppy

The benefits of voluntary associations
-“Schools for society”

Familiarity breeds trust
-Familiarity and sociability are important sources of tolerance
-People work best together under non-competitive conditions
-e.g. Teams, bands, and gangs
-Trust in key to social order, cooperation, and democracy
-voluntary associations promote trust

Trust through voluntary associations
-Social norms are transmitted and shared through networks of connected groups
-Shared norms help to increase the national level of generalized trust

Milgram’s small world and networks
“Brokers” link strangers to one another, increasing general trust

The history of social movements
Social movements evolve
-in 18th and 19th centuries, most were poorly organized and targeted local issues
-lacked resources
In the Early 20th century, they developed more complex division of labour and targeted the most pressing social issues
-economic equality
-political representation
-redistribution of wealth

Robinhood: reliant on a particular individual; no particular agenda; no particular plan

Social movements are everywhere
-social change has been occurring at an unprecedented rate in the past few decades
-environmental movement
-feminist movement
-anti-free trade movement
-black power movement
-gay and lesbian movements

Social movements have different kinds of goals
-Revolutionary social movements are aimed at changing everyone radically
-other social movements focus on limited goals or limited populations

everyone and radical: revolutionary
specific and limited: alternative
specific and radical: redemptive
everyone and limited: reformative

“Social movements can be focused on sects. Not sex. Sects. S-E-C-T-S. Religion sects, etc.”

All social movements pass through stages of change.
-a build-up of stress
-public awareness of a problem, a trigger event, and
-public opposition to power-holder policies

“The thing that most makes sociologists insane is the argument that ‘you can’t conclude anything; everyone is different.'” – Teppy

All social movements bureaucratize after obtaining enough resources
-Recall Weber’s discussion of the routinization of charisma in religion
-Not all social movements succeed, but they all bureaucratize

Stages of social movements:
emerge->coalesce->bureaucratize->cooptation/repression/go mainstream/failure/success->decline

One theory of movements: the breakdown of social order
-According to functionalists, social movements emerge when widespread changes have reduced social cohesion
-Social movements are an attempt to restore order
“Breakdown theory”
Implies that social movements are irrational

“Resource mobilization theory”
-Social movements are attempts to fight inequality
-inequality is always present
-tools to combat inequality vary

Joseph Gusfield: *Symbolic Crusade* (1986)
-prohibition movement in the US
-The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) sought nationwide “moral” improvement

Prohibition was a “status war”
-success would confer status on the WCTU and its members: small-town WASPs
–traditional moral authority was being threatened by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration
-battle for prohibition shows importance of
–expressive politics and well as instrumental politics
–status politics as well as class politics

You would have expressive politics vs. instrumental politics.

Identity politics
Through 19th/20th century: Marxists think politics was about class conflict.
But increasingly we think that politics is about status warfare.

The role of ideology in social movements
–a way of perceiving reality
–an agenda for social, political, or economic action
-ideology is “dominant” when support by powerful groups
–also, when it supports the status quo
-a counter-ideology is opposed by powerful groups and opposes the status quo

Ideologies have multiple roles
-in relation to underlying inequalities of society,
–reformist ideologies identify and attempt to reduce them
–radical ideologies attempt to erase them
-Ideologies can dispel “false consciousness”
–a view of the world out of sync with objective reality
–i.e., ideologies can be empowering and educational

Ideologies mobilize political action
-reformist ideologies call for minor changes to society, and keep basic rules the same
-e.g. Canadian policies of Medicare, welfare, and old age assistance
–not intended to bring equality
–only intended as “safety nets” for the most vulnerable

“Believe it or not we are nearing the end. What would you do if you don’t have somebody talking fast at you?” -Teppy

-Identity politics — a substitute for class-based politics
-concerned with the welfare of particular kinds of people
-goals: equity, dignity, cultural recognition

The Women’s movement: a triumph of identity politics
The women’s movement has increased equity, dignity, and cultural recognition for women
-has also increased their participation in the public sphere
has it increased solidarity among women?
-too many different kinds of women
Has it been inclusionary for males?
-varies from group to group

Movements and parties
-Some movements turn into political parties or are co-opted into existing political parties
-e.g. Green parties
When movements become parties, goals change somewhat
-concern with trying to win and keep political power
But there is no Woman’s Party
-How have women fared in the political presentation of their demands?

Greater participation by women has changed political life only slightly
-Feminist perspective: the state tends to ignore women’s needs
-Does the increase of women in politics make a difference?
Mainly in Scandinavian countries with a social welfare tradition
There, women make a great difference in what is legislated

How to increase gender equality in Canada
Countries with proportional representation have more women in office
-higher voter turnout == more female politicians
But Sylvia Bashevkin notes Canadians are uncomfortable putting women in positions of power
e.g. media treats women with less respect

In Canada, women rarely hold the top positions
-women tend to hold lower level, less-powerful positions
-women only make up 22% of all MPs
-only one female prime minister in history

Impediments to women’s political participation and political success
-financial barriers
-lack of access to helpful networks
-opposition within political parties
-media portrayals of women

What do people want?
Much of the research sociologists do is guided by seven value preferences:
-life over death
-health over sickness
-knowing over not-knowing
-cooperation over conflict
-freedom of movement over physical restraint
-self-determination over direction by others
-freedom of expression over communication restraint

“If you are feeling frustration over this class, you’re probably experiencing communication restraint.” -Teppy

Why don’t (most) people get what they want?
-Aspects of social organization and culture limit people’s opportunities to get what they want out of life

EXCLUSION: people have different access to opportunities (discrimination/lack of credentials)
DECOUPLING: lack of information of social connections
SOCIAL DISABILITY: some people are taught to NOT compete
-This crippling socialization is *social disability*
-leads to lower performance

Your role in the end
think about what you have learned in the course
ask questions and don’t buy into other people’s bullshit!
help sociology improve the world!


Week 10: Reading Sociology Part 14

Estimated Reading Time 00:05:43

Reading Sociology

Part 14: States and Government

Chapter 55: Counting, Caste, and Confusion during Census Enumeration in Colonial India
by Kevin Walby and Michael Haan

References Ian Hacking (1990):

  • Knowledge practices, such as census taking, have no innate footing but become powerful ways to characterize people
  • ie. Social construction. The way we classify people induces people to classify themselves and behave accordingly. If they preach in schools that girls are less adept at math genetically, chance are, girls would end up doing less well in math. :\
  • I am whatever you say I am. (If I wasn’t, then why would you say I am?)

The first censuses were kind of confusing

  • At first caste categorization in India (by colonialists) was a very confused process.
  • The first censuses were regional and fragmentary, and a national attempt at 1871 failed miserably.
  • There are way too many caste names and so the British WASPs began abstracting and generalizing to suit their own understanding of India.
  • There were 2000 caste names collected in 1881 but that number reduced to 207 in the general report.
  • “It just didn’t map onto Indian reality.”

And then this mad dude comes in and starts measuring people

  • Risley, possibly high on opium, thought that categorizing caste by anthropometry was a good idea. He takes out a ruler and starts measuring people’s skull sizes, etc.
  • Risley had political intentions: he needs statistical information to determine which Indians to include in the colonial government, so that the British rule in India isn’t threatened.
  • But then he gets criticized and there’s still no definitive rule for categorizing caste in India.

Notable quotes:

What we find is that caste data were read with an eye to creating a national social hierarchy, but that this often contradicted the local and regional character of caste.

Kevin Walby and Michael Haan

Yet, for all the energy put into counting and categorizing caste in colonial India, the colonial state produced an administrative space that was neither statistically sound nor foolproof. Confusion was the rule, not the exception.

Kevin Walby and Michael Haan

Chapter 56: Canada’s Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, 1937-1982
by Dominique Clément

Such confusing prose!

  • Began by talking about The Raging Grannies. They hung up undies to fight against uranium mining.
  • These grannies are an example for a social movement organization (SMO).
  • Different from a movement: movements are defined by the beliefs they propagate and their ability to mobilize collective action around those beliefs.
  • SMO also different from interest group, which assumes a clear distinction between civil society and the state, and focuses its efforts promoting the interests of its members.

And then Clément goes on to talk about his book (Canada’s Rights Revolution):

  • First objective:
    • Explore some of the most controversial human rights violations in Canadian history:
    • eg. “man in the house rule”: before 1987 if a single mother appears to be living with a man then she’s ineligible to receive welfare. And so investigators went to their houses sniffing around, looking for open beer cans and raised toilet seats.
    • Civil liberties organizations fight for access to welfare. Human rights organizations fight for amount of welfare.
  • Second objective:
    • Study professional social movement organizations:
    • Human rights organizations focus a lot on the state. But doesn’t direct their attention to private exploitation by corporations, or male power within the family.
    • Individuals and groups can make right-claims that are morally sound. But such a claim is not in effect until it receives support from the state.
  • Author’s Rants:
    • And then the author complained about freedom of information laws. Gee it’s so hard to do research nowadays.
    • And then the author talks about how great his book was by incorporating both English and French sources. It’s the only such book in historical sociology about Canada!

What’s the author’s point? I don’t really know.

No notable quotes. Basically the author saying how great his book was.

Chapter 57: The Economy and Public Opinion on Welfare Spending in Canada
by Robert Andersen and Josh Curtis

Omigaad it’s ♥♥♥♥ Josh Curtis ♥♥♥♥ dearest TA ♥♥♥♥ with cutest baseball cap ♥♥♥♥

The public votes for politicians they like. Politicians want to be liked by the public in order to have power. How does this positive feedback loop work? From 1980 to 2001, Canadian politics has increasingly shifted to the right, with growing income inequalities — why?

Preliminary Research:

  • National differences in public opinion is negatively related to level of economic development, welfare state involvement, and presence of a Soviet-communist past.
  • Social democratic countries are characterized by strong public support for welfare; countries with liberal economies tend to show very little public support for government redistribution and income distribution.


  • When the economy is performing poorly, people tend to be less likely to support increases in spending on welfare, and vice versa. When people have money they want to spend more on welfare. Possibly due to two reasons:
    1. Those with higher income feel morally obligated;
    2. Those with lower income benefit from welfare.

The fact that public opinion follows the unemployment rate and median income suggests that it reflects changes in the business cycle. In short, when the economy is performing poorly, people tend to be less likely to support increases in spending on welfare. Contrary to the vies of policy-makers, we propose quite a different story for the mechanisms underlying the positive relationship between income inequality and public opinion. Our data suggest that people want to remedy inequality.

Robert Anderson and Josh Curtis

Chapter 58: Social Europe and Eastern Europe: Post-Socialist Scholars Grapple with New Models of Social Policy
by Ivanka Knezevic

On the dichotomy between universalistic and targeted policies, the author argues for universalistic policies.

  • Capitalist economy cannot be maintained without social policy (a point that many neo-liberal commentators neglect).
  • Labour is not strictly a commodity — people need to be healthy to be able to work. Pure capitalism leads to exploitation, which commodifies labour. Which means that you are worthless when you catch a cold or something — nonsense! Social institutions that decommodify labour and provide security for the labour force is quintessential.
  • So yeah, universal social policies should not be abandoned. Global recommodification of labour makes universal social policies necessary.

While targeted policies are a part of ‘hard’ [mandatory] EU decision making, universalistic policies […] are relegated to the ‘soft’ policy-making process called the ‘open coordination method’. This is a sort of international ‘hall of shame’, where member states discuss benchmarks and ‘best practices’, and where laggards are brought into line by peer pressure, without any legal sanctions. This non-binding mechanism allows the EU not to enforce even its supposedly most important piece of social legislation — the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, which proclaims a variety of human, civil, and cultural rights.

Ivanka Knezevic

Week 11: Starting Points Ch. 16

Estimated Reading Time 00:18:25

Starting Points

Chapter 16
Social Movements and Voluntary Associations

Teppy seems really focused and concise-ish in all previous chapters but now he started to ramble a little bit. That, or maybe I’m just not concentrating as well. Anyway, a long and long-winded chapter.

Governments are not the only source of social order. We also form smaller groups within society. We would choose to associate with voluntary associations voluntarily (bad sentence, I know). When voluntary associates aim to produce change, we call them social movements.

Was our evolution a mistake? By gaining intelligence, do we really make the world into a better place? Are we evolving or devolving?
(The textbook has a marvellous quote from The Hitchhiker’s Guide, it’s not something that can easily be topped, but here’s another quote that I like.)

In my opinion, it [Life] is a highly overrated phenomenon. Mars gets on perfectly without so much as a microorganism. See: there’s the south pole beneath us now… No life. No life at all, but giant steps, ninety feet high, scoured by dust and wind into a constantly changing topographical map, flowing and shifting around the pole in ripples ten thousand years wide. Tell me… would it be greatly improved by an oil pipeline?

-Doctor Manhattan, Watchmen

We invented cultures, built societies, discovered science, pushed technology to its limits. We have created structure and order — we have used social norms and written laws to grant our actions stability and predictability.

While some norms remain, others change. We can change society without destroying the social order. We often work together to bring about changes. Voluntary associations and social movements have helped to shape the society we live in today.

Interdependence: The Real State of Nature

One of the fundamental features of social life is interdependence. We share common goals, common dangers, common friends, common enemies. We benefit from cooperation.
e.g. The market is a complex network formed by dyadic relationships. Market need regulation (repeated 3 times in two paragraphs — Teppy is a Keynesian).
e.g. The Internet is like an information market.

We are embedded in large social networks, and many of these networks are interconnected. As a result, we live in a “small world”. — Six degrees of separation, with “sociometric stars”.
We can choose who we associate with, but not the people who we associate with associate with. We only have limited control of our social network.

Classic Studies: Improvised News: A Sociological Study of Rumour

(Kind of a functionalist approach.)

Rumours are often the medium by which ordinary people express political views, construct images of reality, and show their social solidarity.

Tamotsu (Tom) Shibutani called rumours “improvised news”. Shibutani (1966) showed in his book that rumours travel through existing networks and provide a basis for sociability among people. The information they convey may be distorted by they always carry important social truths.

Gordon Allport and Leo Postman (1947) first characterized rumour as pathology. They simulated the children’s game “broken telephone” in a lab. They defined rumours as a “circulating supposition or belief without secure standards or evidence.” The movement of information from one person to another tends to distort the message.

But can you really emulate rumours in a lab? Meanings and motives are lost.

There are many important respects in which a psychology laboratory at, say, the University of British Columbia, is not like an Aboriginal community in the Yukon, for example. (If you remember nothing else from this book, please remember the previous sentence, for it calls attention to a key distinction between psychology and sociology).


Shibutani’s analysis of rumours focused on ordinary people in natural communities. Studied Japanese-American relocation centre and noted how an interned population made sense of its situation. Shibutani sees rumour as a social information to clarify issues of common concern through repeated interaction and discussion. Rumour formation is problem-solving.

Shibutani points out that you typically get rumour when unusual, unexpected events occur, and the normally reliable channels of communication break down. Then, people turn to others — often opinion leaders — for information.

Much of life is ambiguous, so we need to speculate — form rumours. Many important informations have to be made with inexact information, this understanding of collective decision making is widely applicable.

There are five roles to perform:
5.Decision Maker
In the process of turning alleged facts into information, some opinions are challenged, rejected, while others are retained. This continues until the group reaches a satisfactory interpretation of situation.
Contrary to Allport and Postman’s view that rumours are increasingly distorted, Shibutani shows that rumour collaboratively gain accuracy and provide more stability.

Rumours spread within existing social networks. People don’t spread rumours indiscriminately, to whoever they see. Rumour spreads through a series of interpersonal communications, until they eventually reach the outskirts of the communication network.
Rumour is a powerful method of communication with the potential to strengthen and increase solidarity of networks.

Knopf (1975) said maybe Shibutani should have based his analysis on more rumours, instead of just the 471 rumours he had.
Meyersohn (1969) said that the model is too simplistic.

Shibutani’s work is the first review on the topic of rumours and provided good insight. Shibutani offered a positive image of human beings whereas Allport offered a negative one.

Voluntary Associations and Sociability

voluntary associations address a variety of concerns, include alumni associations, frats, book clubs, etc etc. All these groups draw on familiarity among members — and sometimes intimacy, trust, and similarity.

These voluntary associations — though often aimed at solving a particular problem — are rooted in sociability, and some consider it a natural human impulse. Johan Huizinga (1955), a philosopher, spoke of humanity as “homo ludens” — we all want to play!
Play is freedom itself; play is a departure from “ordinary”; and play occupies its own time and space. Every society has play — even animals have play.
(I’m an animal, with an animal’s desires.)

Why is playing with others so fun? Different people bring different qualities and personalities to the event. We are all different and unique and that’s what makes life beautiful!
Georg Simmel points out, though, that play follows social forms and social norms (tact). e.g. Fashion. Otherwise, there is no real connection between people and we end up all playing with ourselves.
Play is not meant to be psychodrama. (The greatest tennis players, for example, are able to separate themselves from worldly concerns and simply focus on hitting the ball. Movements and shot placement become instinctive. This state of zen-like concentration is referred to as “the zone”, and is a goal for many aspiring tennis players of which I used to be one. Until I came to U of T that is. Sigh. UofT give me my life back.)

The Benefits of Voluntary Associations

Voluntary associations not only provide sociability but also bring together a diverse group of people for a common cause. Very different people can often meet voluntarily as equals. It’s great. Côté and Erickson said they are “schools for democracy”.

But voluntary associations have an unpredictable effect on social tolerance. e.g. Members of environmental groups tend to be less racist. Members of sports teams (which, broadly speaking, favour antagonism; I have nothing against sports) tend to be more racist. Labour unions are sensitive to the economy and so tend to be less tolerant too.

Familiarity is good, but trust and liking would promote tolerance even better.
Trust is the set of socially learned and socially confirmed expectations of others. We trust different people to different degrees, in different ways. In general though, trust is limited and conditional. Unconditional trust is rare and sometimes foolhardy. Trust arises in groups through reward and sanctions.

Often trust arises through connection (through “vouching”) as well as familiarity. If I don’t know you but my friend says you are trustworthy, I will trust you.

People Control One Another Informally

We want good opinion of others. Our sense of guilt or shame is based on childhood learning of the views of the “generalized other” of George Herbert Mead. Informal social control — based upon shame, guilt, gossip, rumour, and threatened rejection — is inexpensive and almost impossible to see. It punishes the rule-breaker, silently rewards the conformist with esteem, trust, and cooperation. It’s so much more effective than jailing.

Informal punishments has been an old topic under study. Some believe that control and conformity can be explained in solely individual terms, but others believe that altruistic rewards and punishments allow for better survival. Not to be a downer, but altruism is hard to find nowadays. 😦
By default then, it is easiest to explain conformity as a reaction to social control and a self-interest obedience of social rules.

“Social control” is a concept that identifies a new realm for discussing order and regulation. Social control is “control by society or social relations. It is different from military control, police control, or legal control. This concept makes civil society equally important as the state (discussed by Hobbes) and the economy (discussed by Marx).

Social control addresses two key questions: 1. Why/how is social order achieved? 2. Why does social inequality exist (and persist)?

Sociological theories, like those of George Homans, provide us with deeper insight into group influences. Especially into the ways in which groups protect themselves against deviant activities and deviant identities. Basically people reward wanted behaviour and withhold rewards for unwanted behaviour.

Classic Studies: The Civilizing Process

Formal and informal controls work together to bring about social changes. Norbert Elias wrote a book about formal/informal controls and good manners in The Civilizing Process. It’s a book in two volumes: The History of Manner and Power and Civility.

Elias shows that polite manners and state government develop together. Good manners began with the aristocracy and spread to the bourgeoisie. The middle class always wants to emulate the upper class.

Good manners is a repression of “natural” drives. Increasingly people use utensils when eating, go out of public sight when defecating, or make out and have sex in private. So politeness and shame is closely interrelated. People show their classiness through elegant manners and a knowledge of etiquette.
Good manners coincide with the rise of a strong state since it is through the rise of this state that a national, official culture develops. Regional variations are less socially acceptable. Which is why Parisians and Londoners are so proud of their accents.

As states (e.g. ruled by kings) become more stable, citizens are increasingly expected to regulate their own behaviour. Norms become widespread and people are obliged to act in socially accepted ways.

Seigel asks: how do you know if the people in 14-18th century Europe actually followed manners? Have you been there Elias? Also this work only looked at European manners.
Bullough says that this is bullocks. Elias ignores variables such as emerging concept of privacy, changing status of women, etc.

This work is still important though. It is the first to look at manners through a sociological lens. The work also showed a clear linkage “between microsociological and macrosociological realms of society” — e.g. between formal and informal control.
So we are coerced and controlled both by the army and by ridicule.


Sociologists have different approaches for social movements and voluntary associations: breakdown approach, resource mobilization approach, cultural approach, and political process approach.

Breakdown approach
Breakdown approach builds on Émile Durkheim (and so it’s functionalist). These theorists argue that social movements form when rapid and widespread changes in society weaken social bonds. Social movements, therefore, signify social disintegration.

Relative deprivation theory is a related functionalist approach. It argues that people form protests when they think they don’t have enough, even though people a couple generations ago have had less.
But three kinds of critique was levelled at relative deprivation theory and functionalism:

  1. It is not always only the most disadvantaged members of society who are frustrated and fight for social change. Members of middle and upper classes are more likely to lead revolutions. Like the Bolsheviks.
  2. Not all societies that experience deprivation fight for change through revolution.
  3. The relative deprivation theory is an ideology, reducing dissatisfaction and oppression into trivial symptoms of discontent.

Systemic theory is another functionalist theory. It focuses not on individuals but on society. It argues that although many individuals feel frustrated, their frustration is only effective when they mobilize as a group.

Critical theorists critique the breakdown approach: social conflict is natural, not pathological. Social movements are organization rather than disorganization. Most movements are not spontaneous, childish outburst of frustration but organizations with rational goals and plans.

Behind this mask there is more than just flesh. Beneath this mask there is an idea… and ideas are bulletproof.

-V, V for Vendetta

Resource Mobilization Approach
Resource mobilization theorists believe protest organizations are much like many other organizations, and just as helpful. Social movements try to spread their counter-ideology. Resource mobilization theorists say that there will always be dissatisfied people — the question should be “why aren’t people protesting all the time?”
Resource availability determines the formation and actions of social movement, not goals and motivations.

To succeed, protestors much have at least one of the following:
-economic power: control over production; or at least money
-political power: control over legitimate use of violence (e.g. police or military)
-ideological power: the ability to spread ideologies through schools, churches, etc etc. The ability to propaganda.
These protest organizations are built on social networks.

There are two different approaches to how resource is mobilized: the utilitarian perspective and the political conflict theory.
The utilitarian perspective assumes that individuals join social movements for their own interests. But then again social incentives as well as peer pressure may cause people to join too.
The political conflict theory highlights how social classes promote the interests of their members through social movements. The most important conditions for success are social ties between members, influential contacts, and available resources.

Cultural Approach
Cultural approach stresses the importance of values and beliefs. People don’t react to social situations per se, but to their interpretation of these situations. There are the new social movements (NSM) approach and framing theory.

NSMs approach arose in Europe, and argues that after structural changes in the West, new identities aren’t based on class anymore. Instead, they have given rise to “identity politics” — a substitute for class-based politics. These identity-based groups fight for equity, dignity, and cultural recognition, as much as for economic justice.
“There is no place for the state in the bedrooms of the nation.” -Pierre Trudeau, 1967

Framing theory emerged in North America, and criticized resource mobilization theory for its lack of attention to culture. They are inspired by the symbolic interactionists and is interested in how people develop and communicate cultural goals in a social movement. This communication of goals results in frame alignment.


  • breakdown approach: social movements signify social disintegration.
    • relative deprivation theory: people expect too much.
    • systemic theory: frustration is only effective en masse
  • resource mobilization approach: spreading of counter-ideology is good
    • utilitarian perspective: people join movements to further their own goals
    • political conflict theory: social classes promote their own goals in movements
  • cultural approach: people don’t react to social situations but rather to their interpretation of social situations
    • new social movements approach: identity politics, not based on class
    • framing theory: interested in how people develop and communicate cultural goals in movements
  • political process approach [not discussed in depth at all]

Classic Studies: Symbolic Crusade

By Joseph Gusfield. He wrote about the 18th Amendment to the Constitution — the one banning alcohol from USA in the 1920s – 1930s. But of course when you try to stop people from drinking it doesn’t work. This is when the arcane art of moonshining was developed.

Gusfield outlines the role of Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) — a voluntary association — in promoting this “troubled, ineffective, and short-lived legislation” (sic). From 1874 onward they tried to educate people about the dangers of alcohol, and gain support from women with alcoholic (and probably abusive) husbands.

But this fight against alcohol is about more than just alcohol. It has a symbolic meaning: it is seeking affirmation that sobriety is a key value to the American society. In the 1870s, industrialization, urbanization, and immigration after the civil war all threatened traditional WASP lifestyle.

As their efforts become less effective, the WCTU turned to more coercive legislations. This was status warfare.


Continuing from page 470:
So yeah, Gusfield is a pretty cool guy with alternative viewpoints. His approach viewed social movements as conscious efforts, not merely as symptoms of a disorganized society. Kk I’m done here.

Changing Causes of Social Movement Formation

As society evolves, so does social movements. In 18th and 19th centuries most social movements were organized poorly. They lack resources and are obstructed by pre-industrial communication. So these movements are mainly local.

In the early 20th century, social movements became organized by division of labour. These movements — e.g. worker’s unions — fought for economic equality, suffrage, and redistribution of wealth. These early social movements invented new and more effective ways of protest, such as mass demonstrations, blockades, boycotts, sit-ins, and strikes.

The second half of 20th century saw the rise of new social movements (NSMs). They fought for the rights of blacks, women, LGBTQ, etc etc. They are the champions of human rights.

Kitschelt (1993) said that social movements became more active over the past few centuries. With movements becoming more complex and more focused on societal (and not local) issues. But rate of increase is not uniform and there are fluctuations.

Social movements are more likely to form when public demands are unsatisfied. This momentum lessens when resources become scarce, members become disengaged, or the issue at hand received more attention by political parties. If a social movement gains enough support, it may turn into a political party. e.g. Green Party of Canada.

Social Movements in a Globalized World

Information technology enlarges social movements and increases their complexities. But then the stakes are higher and the leadership needs to be stronger.


The willy-nilly Tilly studied social movements in Europe since 1500. He studied over 8000 “contentious gatherings” in 1758-1834 Britain. He said that social movements have their beginnings in specific events. What are these specific events? The textbook doesn’t say.

As Western culture spread through trade, colonialism, and migration, the tendency for people to form social movements spread as well. Particularly in democratic states. Tilly claimed that successful social movements can aid political causes.

Carlo Ruzzo said of Tilly: Tilly thinks that structural political conflict is based on social relations, and not people’s inherent psychological tendencies.

Tilly thinks that the job of sociologists is to trace the “logic of violence” in the mobilization of social change.

Stanley (2009) advocates the approach of following narrative inquiry. Stanley said that analysis should place the stories in the context of contemporary large-scale issues, and look beyond the storyteller’s own version of the causes and effects in the narrative.
(Basically, don’t take gossip as it is.)

Sakai (2009) follow’s Tilly’s model in analyzing trans-generational narratives. Studied stories of Northern Ireland people after WWII. Sakai finds that storytellers reinterpret their own lives through the experiences of their parents.

Green and Ward (2009) agree that the “logic of violence” is evident in Iraq following the 2003 invasion. Do you know that in unstable states the black market is as economically important as legal ones?

Pallister-Wilkins (2009) looks at activism surrounding the building of West Bank barrier wall between Israeli and Palestinian territories. Activists from both sides don’t want the wall to be built. Palestinians because this is a threat to the well-being of their communities. Israelis because they think people need not feel oppressed to act against perceived injustice.

Hockey, Meah, and Robinson (2009) look at sex lives of young adults in WWII. In stressful times people are having premarital sex! Neither individualistic approach nor the group approach can provide a satisfactory answer. It shows that people can uphold social conventions at a collective level but flout them on a personal level.

Tilly belongs to the fusion approach.

New Insights

Teppy quotes a poem. Aww how nice. In my beginning is my end.

And The Words of the Prophets Are Written on a Subway Wall
Roberge (2009) write about Jeffery Alexander’s cultural sociology, and notes how present-day societies are “ritual-like”.

Man Is Defined by Actions, Not by Words
Gustavsen (2008) notes that action-research — research aimed at informing and promoting change — exists in many varieties and domains. It is dedicated to success.

Sarah Wakefield looked at the “food movement”. Building on the Frankfurt critical theory, she uses the term PRAXISSSSSSSSS to describe how people live out their beliefs. These approaches contribute to the quest for freedom, basis of critical theory.

CMS Sounds Like PMS
In organizational management, there is “critical management studies” (CMS). Willmott (2008) asks: what’s the point of CMS? (I wonder too). It is important to include developing connections between CMS and activists. These goals of committing business to social justice are interrelated and require supranational cooperation.
(It still doesn’t really tell you what CMS is…)

In the State We Trust
Ross (2008) says we shouldn’t rely too heavily on civil society and too little on the state in bring about social changes. “Anti-statism” and anarchy is not very good.

Get Off Your Arses and Do Work
Sukhov (2008) says that despite concerns about political issues, significant factors lead people to deter taking action. These causes include:
-Underdeveloped capacity for independent moral judgement
-Connection to others who are already involved in addressing the problem
-Their own previous involvement
Many of the behaviours of respondents may appear non-rational.

Freedom Soars Like a Hawk
Critical theorists such as Soares (2007) says that postmodernism is the new face of imperialism. It doesn’t reprimand society for the social ills capitalism causes.

Week 10 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 15

Estimated Reading Time 00:08:12

Lecture 9

Politics and Governance

“It’s really hot over here. That’s why I’ve stripped down.” -Teppy

“Your test scores are probably being posted this very minute.” -Teppy

Median: 75%. Mean: 72.5%

“Today I want to talk about politics. Politics is not my favourite subject, I don’t know why. Every now and then I enjoy talking about it for a little.” -Teppy

What’s the consequence of living in Canada vs. the USA? One major difference is in politics. We can’t compare society without comparing the political structures. These differences come from culture, economics, history, etc. etc.

Defining “governance”
Politics is about states. States govern.
Governance = collective decision making + policy implementation
Governance also refers to all norms and processes related to the delivery of public goods.

“Social institutions are not mortar and bricks. Social institutions are norms and processes. So what do we mean by public goods? It includes things like healthcare, education, etc… that the public relies on the state to do for us.” -Teppy

So you are turning over a large power to the state.
Governance encompasses the regulatory framework and authority of the state. It’s about the state but also how the state affects the non-state (i.e. things like family, markets, etc. etc.).

You’d think families are private. But the state is interested in the family as well.

“There’s a very strong connection between the state and non-governmental networks which also delivers public goods.” -Teppy
e.g. University of Toronto relies on the state. For funding. State also direct the U of T. Should the state remove funding this is a huge crisis.
e.g. NGOs, professional associations (P. Eng., CMA, etc.)

How to measure good governance
The World Bank has developed six measures of good governance:
1.Voice and accountability
2.Political stability and absence of violence
3.Government effectiveness
4.Regulatory quality
5.Rule of law
6.Control of corruption
e.g. Norway does exceedingly well in all these dimensions.

Related concept: governmentality
“Governmentality” — a term invented by Michel Foucault in 1978 to describe the development of modern states and of liberal political economy

How does the state accomplish “rule”?
-Foucault’s work broke with critical social science literature
-he sakes not “who benefits” but rather what and who is being governed — and how.
Post-Marxism (Foucault): the state is distanced (a little bit) from the ruling class. Marxism is an oversimplification.

State rule and non-state (e.g.) rule are connected
-Governmentality studies put aside the distinction between state and non-state governance.
-In this way, Foucault broke with the Marxist approach

The trick is getting people to rule themselves.
-Foucault interested in the rise of science.
-Foucault examined liberalism’s promise to govern us by aligning governing objectives with out desire for autonomy.
-i.e. to connect freedom with public constraint.

Debate: university is not producing enough technicians, artisans, crafters.
Government might decide to raise tuition to reduce number of people receiving education — this is influencing the members of the non-state!

People behave themselves by striving to achieve normality
“Governmentality” — manipulating notions of normality.

-refers to innovations, roughly originating in late 18th century Europe
-controls “populations” without laying down prohibitory rules or individually disciplining deviants.

Interesting fact: number of diagnosable illnesses increased over the past 50 years!
Illness is a social acceptable form of deviance. What we’re doing is saying that the medical profession is having more and more power to excuse people.

Incentives and expert knowledge
-In general, governmental power tends ot work on people indirectly
-by incentivizing and rewarding certain activities
-by using expert or state knowledge to do so.

Some differences between political sociology and political science
-**Political science** deals mainly with machinery of gov’t and public admin
-**Political sociology** deals with relations between political institutions and **other social institutions**.

Central concern of political sociology: bases of authority
TRADITIONAL: e.g. Louis XIV of France
By the end of WWI almost all traditional rulers (in Europe) are gone.
CHARISMATIC: e.g. Adolf Hitler
Charisma is known by its effects, not its traits.

Rational-legal authority
Cf., Foucault on governmentality
Most common type of authority in modern states.
Absence of rational-legal authority -> “failed” state.
Beaureaucratic organization: characterized by rational-legal authority
Legitimacy of authority depends on codified rules

Example of the sociological approach: Seymour Martin Lipset’s “First New Nation”
-Examiens role of politics in making American society different from others
Lipset: a Marxist. Why didn’t the Marxists find success in the United States?

Key features of the US:
1.Revolutionary war
2.Commitment to two core values: equality and achievement
These values form basis of all American institutions: family, school, politics, etc.

The role of revolution in nation-building
-The American revolution established a basis for legal-rational authority (don’t need to listen to the Queen anymore)
-Created a new republic
-Created a new set of **constitutional** rights
-Created a new sense of community

Sociologists also study the role of class influence in modernization
B. Moore (former Marxist) explores connection between class influence and type of state
-compares societies in examining democracy, equality, and class formation
-disagrees with Marx’s view that working class revolution would produce equality necessary for democracy
-also challenges “modernization theorist” who believed in only one route to modernity

The way a state becomes modern:
-upper class (and military) domination leads to modernity through fascism (Germany, Japan, Italy, etc)
-middle class domination leads to modernity through liberal democracy (states)
-peasant domination leads to modernity through communism (China)
-so far, no working class domination has led to modernization

Moore believed “bourgeois revolution” brings western democracy in **5 ways**
1.Undermines role of monarchy or aristocracy
2.Moves rural economy to independent small farming, away from large feudal estates
3.Helps eliminate impoverished peasantry and landed classes dependent on this exploitation
4.Makes bourgeoisie less likely to ally with aristocracy against peasants/workers (as in fascism)
5.Breaks from the past, economically, politically and ideologically
Like Lipset, Moore focuses on the occasional importance of violence in setting democracy

Like Lipsets, Moore sees the value of cross-national comparison
-Both use cross-national, comparative and historical research, like Marx, Weber, Marx, etc.
-Comparison helps to identify laws of societal change
-also useful in studying “failed states” (more later)

One commonality between successful modern states: rule of law

Without written rules…
-you can’t have rule of law
-you can’t have predictable economic life (economic growth, investment)
-predictable social life (e.g. in families, schools, workplaces)
-systematic growth of science and technology

Features that distinguish the top 10 “failed” states form sustainable states
-include demographic pressures, refugees, civil war
Also important:
-corruption, low confidence in government, inability to control economy, and no rule of law

Most sustainable state: Norway
Most failed state: Somalia
Question of interest: what combination of social, historical, political, economic, and cultural factors **produce success**?

Not all rational-legal states are just or sustainable
3 types of rational-legal state:
**Authoritarian**: use force to ensure compliance
-leader is often dictator
-often cooperates military, church, multinational corporations
e.g. South American countries (Argentina)
**Totalitarian**: more extreme, stable versions of authoritarian states
-intervenes in both public and private life: complete loyalty and compliance
e.g. China?!!?!?!? (One child policy)
**Liberal-democratic**:meow mewwowow

“Telling people how many children to have is an extremely totalitarian thing to do.” -Teppy

Authoritarian state controls people mainly throughout he military and church. e.g. many latin American dictatorships

Totalitarian state controls all social institutions, including schools and families

By contrast, a liberal-democratic state reflects the goals and values of lalalalla

Types of Liberal Democratic State (most sustainable)
In ancient Athens, all citizens would come up to one place and talk about politics.
This is cool, but majority of Athenians were non-citizens.
Impossible in Canada.

We have **representative democracy** with **constitutional monarchy**.

Ways of voting
-Methods of voting vary between democracies
-Canada uses “first past the post” method
-Candidate with most number of votes in riding is the winner
-A popular alternative is **proportional representation**

Mainstream and minority parties
-Only liberal and conservative parties have ever held federal government
–never NDP
-NDP began as Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)
–socialist, farm, co-operative …

Many groups are unrepresented
-The Canadian voting system leaves many unrepresented.

“60% of Canadians voted for Stephen Harper. Stephen Harper is the prime minister.

“60% of Canadians voted for Stephen Harper. Stephen Harper is the prime minister.

“60% of Canadians voted for Stephen Harper. Stephen Harper is the prime minister. Are you seeing a problem here?” -Teppy

Voter turnout
-Voter turnout has steadily declined over years to about 60%
-Younger people less likely to vote
-Those with higher education, boring in Canada or living in Quebec are most politically active

(Non-Democratic) Elites in Democracies
-C Wright Mill’s “ruling elite theory”: in liberal democracies, a small privileged groups controls society
-elites share similar interests and views, serve on same boards of largest companies, and create networks.

-There is Canadian elite at top of corporations, linked through common networks and ideas about power

The (partly) autonomous state
e.g. Supreme Court of Canada (not swayed by politics)
-The state usually tries to resist short-term demands from ruling elites (e.g., to reduce elite taxes) to fulfill longer term goals (e.g., to educate labour force)
-Neo-Marxists view state as partly autonomous — not always responding to demands of elites

The development of citizenship rights
-In England, legal rights developed over centuries
-By 18th Century, fair and predictable treatment was common in law courts
-Political citizenship developed in 19th century
-but women in Canada did not get right to vote until 1919
-Social citizenship developed around Great Depression in Britain, Canada, and US
-social safety nets like welfare, health insurance, old age pensions, etc.

“Neither legal citizenship nor political citizenship mean anything without effective social citizenship.” -Teppy