Summary: Random Facts

Still work in progress.

Ctrl + F is your best friend.

Random Facts (from lectures):

  • 6% of everyone who’s ever lived on Earth is alive
  • 4.3 million Canadians aged 12/older were injured in 2009/2010 (15% of population)
  • 63% of seniors/50% of adolescents were injured in falls
  • 27% among 12-to-19-year-old males; 14% adults; 9% seniors
  • 2 billion people lacking water
  • 800 million people in 1750 -> 7 billion now
  • % humans in less-developed countries: 80%
  • Canada: diamond population pyramid
  • Ulrich Beck: risk society
  • Most urban growth: 500 000 citizens or fewer
  • Concentric ring theory
  • Louis Wirth: experience of cities (careful inattention)
  • Charles Perrow: KISS (keep it simple, stupid); more complex technologies more likely to fail
  • Charles Perrow: serious technological accidents result of flawed human organization
  • 2.5% innovators, 16% laggards
  • Merton: CUDO
  • Tepperman: The Dostoevsky Effect
  • Theodicy
  • Social gospel: CCF-NDP
  • 1985+ : Canadians never going to church has risen 50%
  • ~40% American parents believe violence contributes “a lot” to violence in children
  • 90% of top grossing films depict killing in 2000s, compared to 40% in 1940s
  • CBC is a crown corporation
  • Katz and Lasarsfeld
  • The average parent devotes 1 hour every day on caring for children and others
  • 60% of US teens use internet any given day
  • Under 18: 80% active on Facebook, 50% text daily
  • Internet usage increased by 121% from 2000 in CAN
  • Foucault – governmentality
  • Most sustainable: Norway; most failed: Somalia
  • C. Wright Mills: ruling elite theory
  • Jeffery Sachs: happiness study
  • Women form 22% of all MPs
  • Exclusion/decoupling/disability

Summary: Concepts

Ctrl + F is your best friend.

Concepts from Lectures:

  • Positive vs. preventative checks (kill is positive)
  • Mechanical vs. organic solidarity (marines behind tanks; bio after mech)
  • Secondary deviance: career in rulebreaking
  • Primary vs. secondary groups (Cooley, primary more intimate)
  • Nuclear vs. extended family
  • Primary vs. secondary socialization (primary first)
  • I vs. me
  • Manifest vs. latent function
  • Functional vs. substantive definitions of religion
  • Social constructionism vs. essentialism
  • Political science vs. political sociology
  • Traditional vs. charismatic vs. rational-legal authority
  • Authoritarian vs. totalitarian vs. liberal-democratic states
  • Authoritative vs. authoritarian vs. permissive vs. neglectful parenting (Diane Baumrind)

Summary: Names

Estimated Reading Time 00:07:34

The view is often defended that sciences should be built up on clear and sharply defined basal concepts. In actual fact no science, not even the most exact, begins with such definitions. The true beginning of scientific activity consists rather in describing phenomena and then in proceeding to group, classify and correlate them.

Sigmund Freud, General Psychological Theory

Irritatingly, taxonomy is important. While it allows for easy classification, be wary of falling into a overly-reductionistic view. A liberal arts education is supposed to “liberate the individual from the parochialism of direct personal experience“, not do the opposite.

People who aren’t important enough to have their full name mentioned are not included. People at the end of chapters (New Insights) are not included.

Still work in progress.

Ctrl + F is your best friend.

Durkheim
Functionalist

  • Anomie — failure of institutions
  • Studied suicide (egoistic, altruistic, anomic, fatalistic)
  • Pioneered the “sociological method” — quantitative analysis
  • Crime has latent function as social glue, despite its manifest function
  • Common conscience — mechanical solidarity in cities
  • “Civic culture”
  • The Elementary Forms of Religious Life
  • Totemism
  • Collective consciousness <-> religion
  • Shared symbol
  • Organic society: must appeal to common humanity; religion less important.
  • Breakdown approach (for social movements) is based on Durkheim

Screen shot 2013-04-26 at 12.56.28 PM
Figure 1. Durkheim’s suicides: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, fatalistic. (From lecture 1)

Marx
Critical Theorist

  • Interested in class divisions and class struggles
  • Vertical exploitation
  • Modes of production — dominant ideology

Screen shot 2013-04-26 at 1.04.23 PM
Figure 2. Marx’s modes of production, all societies inexorably lead to communism.
(From communist university.)

Weber
Critical Theorist

  • Critical-ish, interested in status, power, authority, and bureaucracy
  • (For enriching details, here’s something from Duke U.)
  • Groups compete horizontally, through usurpation
  • Case study of Protestant ethic and capitalism
    1. Nature of capitalism = this worldliness
    2. Source = protestantism
    3. QED
  • Charismatic leadership -> routinization of charisma
  • Chaotic -> Lawful
  • Three kinds of authority:
    1. Traditional
    2. Charismatic
    3. Rational-legal

August Comte
Positivist

  • Founder of sociology

Robert Merton
Functionalist

  • Social theory and social structure
  • Latent functions and manifest functions
  • “Culture of science”

Herbert Blumer
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Social recognition -> social legitimating -> mobilization for action -> development and implementation of official plan

John Porter
Functionalist

  • The vertical mosaic
  • WASPs tend to do better
  • Economic oligarchy
  • Education contributes to upward mobility

Erving Goffman
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Examined stigma
  • Strategies: “passing” + “covering”
  • Qualitative
  • All life is like staged play
  • Dramaturgical approach
  • Role embracement, role distance, role exit
  • Total institution (drastic resocialization) (e.g. jails, monasteries)

Georg Simmel
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Studied urbanization in the 1950s
  • People get numb due to overstimulation
  • Theorized “social forms”
  • Secrecy: “first world” and “second world”
  • Form and content

Anthony Giddens
Neo-positivist

  • New interpreter of sociology
  • There’s yet room for cultural discourse

Thomas Malthus
Functionalist

  • Positive checks vs. preventive checks
  • Functional because his mention of equilibrium

Ansley Coale
Demographer

  • Population undergoes exponential growth since 1750+

Ulrich Beck
Sociologist

  • “Risk society”; increasingly chaotic
  • Reflexive modernization

Manuel Castells
Critical theorist

  • “Disposable theory”
  • Social activism is distinct from dominant economic networks
  • “Space of flows” and “flow of spaces” (presumably different?)
  • “Typology of identities”
  • Marxist
  • “Liquid” modernity
  • “Fourth world”

Howard Becker
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Marijuana isn’t intrinsically bad, but people make it bad
  • “Outsiders”
  • Foundation for labelling theory

Charles Horton Cooley
Symbolic Interactionist

  • “Looking glass self”
  • Founder of labelling theory

Ralph Lindon
Symbolic Interactionist

  • People play roles but occupy statuses

Robert Bales
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Study of group dynamics with Parsons
  • Task leader, emotional leader, joker
  • Study of family division of labour with Parsons
  • Breadwinner + housewife
  • Instrumental + expressive roles

Talcott Parsons
Functionalist

  • Statuses central to social order
  • Study of group dynamics and family division of labour with Bales
  • Focuses on top-down socialization
  • Ideal society is homogeneous. Social integration
  • Wrote about politics in The Social System
    • Families, organizations, etc. all have a “goal attainment function”
    • Politics is everywhere

Mark Granovetter
Sociologist

  • Weak ties and sociometric stars

Anatol Rapoport
Mathematical psychologist

  • Mathematical proof of weak ties

George Herbert Mead
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Role taking
  • The “I” and the “me”
  • “Generalized other”: expectations of society — informal social control
  • Playing games is important

Ralph Turner
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Role making

Seymour Martin Lipset
Political sociologist

  • Canadians are elitist, traditional, and collectivistic
  • Wrote Political Man: what social conditions and processes promote democracy?
  • Wrote The First New Nation to compare Canada and USA
    • US is the only ex-commonwealth to have a revolutionary war
    • US founded on a contradiction: equality vs. achievement
    • Religions and labour movement worked hand in hand, one for morality, the other for class awareness and equality
  • Elitism ranking: UK > Canada > Aussies > US

Michael Foucault
Symbolic Interactionist

  • Modern society is a prison, a panopticon
  • Social institutions impose rules upon us
  • “Critical theory of the present”; “genealogical” approach
  • “Bio power”
  • Social scripts + forms control us
  • “Governmentality”: employee transformed to stive for perfection
  • “Technologies of the self”:
    • Self examination
    • Identification of inner impurities
    • Disclosure of the self
    • Renunciation of the self
  • “Neo-liberalism”
  • Wrote The Birth of the Prison
    • Prisons invented to keep criminals out of public attention
    • Record-keeping to control criminals
    • Knowledge used to disempower, not empower
    • Surveillance — panopticon (prison where guards can see prisoners, but prisoners cannot see guards) — leads to self regulation
    • Society is a panopticon — political stability

George Murdock
Anthropologist

  • Cultural universals

Antonio Gramsci
Renaissance Man

  • Intellectuals helped alleviate the Great Depression
  • Capitalism maintains control not just through violent coercion, but also through the manipulation of ideas and ideologies — working class much have a counter-ideology

Harrison White and Cynthia White
Sociologists

  • Production of culture
  • Case study of impressionism

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf
Sociologists

  • Language expresses thoughts and structures them

Thornstein Veblen
Sociologist

  • “Conspicuous consumption”
  • Nature of social prestige is wasteful
  • Recommends an austere lifestyle

Pierre Bourdieu
Sociologist

  • “Cultural capital’, taste, “learning of class”
  • Habitus & social field
  • French: class is inherited. Contrast with James S. Coleman.

E.D. Hirsch
Sociologist

  • Cultural literacy is important.

Ronald Immerman + Wade Mackey
Sociologists

  • Monogamy is da best

William Goode
Sociologist

  • “Nuclear family”

Theodor Adorno
Sociologist

  • The “F scale”. F for fascism.

Arlie Hothschild
Critical theorist

  • “Feeling rules” — emotional labour

Christopher Jencks and David Riesman
Sociologists

  • “The Academic Revolution” — research universities stopped caring about their undergraduates

James Samuel Coleman
Sociologist

  • The adolescent society
  • Those dumb teenagers
  • Hey, maybe their parents are dumb and shallow too! (Can be read as critique of American society)
  • Coleman report: schools provide cultural capital
  • American: cultural capital can be acquired in schools. Contrast with Pierre Bourdieu.

John Robert Seeley
Sociologist

  • Crestwood heights
  • Forest Hill teenagers yo. So preppy

Erik Erikson
Sociologist

  • 8 stages of social development
  • Stage 4: latency: age 6-12: develop competence + insecurities
  • Stage 5: : age 12-19: teens. Angsty, rebellious, always “finding themselves”. What can you say?

Sigmund Freud
Psychologist

  • Civilization and Its Discontents
  • Religion is a vessel for repressing sex. A form of Oedipal complex.

Robert Bellah
Twilight

  • Civil religion: super bowl is like a religious festival
  • We are part of a larger whole
  • Habits of the Heart
  • American’s founding principles:
    • Republicanism
    • Biblical religion
    • Individualism
  • Individualism prevents Americans giving enough attention to the first two principles

Copen and Silverstein
Sociologists

  • How is religion inherited?
    1. Socialization
    2. Social training
    3. Status inheritance

Gerbner and Gross
Sociologists

  • Cultivation theory: mean world syndrome
  • Passive audience

Herbert Gaas
Sociologist

  • Elaborated on GGross
  • Media coverage shaped by:
    • News-worthiness
    • Internal pressures
    • Tastes of the audience
    • Responsibility

Susanna Walters
Feminist

  • Material girls
  • “The male gaze”

Marshall McLuhan
“Media prophet” (– according to the UofT “Boundless” campaign)

  • Cultural studies perspective

Boxer et al.
Sociologists

  • Media increases crime

Baudrillard
High on drugs

  • Hyperreality
  • No, no, no, no matter what you say, the gulf war didn’t happen. No. Stop talking to me! You don’t exist! The world doesn’t exist! I don’t exist!

Katz and Lazarsfeld
Sociologists

  • How do you change people’s minds?
  • Two-step flow of information: ideas flow first to opinion leaders
  • Advertise to opinion leaders

Michael Adams
BDSM

  • Wrote Sex in the Snow and American Backlash

George Homans
Functionalist

  • Focuses on microstructure of politics
  • Wrote The Human Group
  • “Social exchange theory”
  • “Small group politics” — small groups rule themselves with informal control, like exclusion or ridicule
  • Looked for payoff — why people value such self government
  • Not unlike Erving Goffman

Barrington Moore
Critical Theorist

  • During modernization, if the majority is:
    • middle class: democracy
    • peasant/proletarian class: communism
    • traditional ruling class: fascism

Jürgen Habermas
Critical Theorist (Frankfurt School)

  • “Deliberative democracy”: where citizens actually debate rationally
  • “Communicative action”: rationality must go beyond pure strategy and we must seek mutual agreement
  • “Lifeworld” (invented by Husserl)

Tamotsu (Tom) Shibutani
Sociologist

  • Calls rumours “improvised news”
  • Rumours may carry social truths
  • Studied Japanese-American relocation centre
  • In the absence of reliable info people turn to opinion leaders for guidance
  • Five roles in the formation of rumour:
    1. Messenger
    2. Interpreter
    3. Skeptic
    4. Protagonist
    5. Decision Maker
People turn to opinion leaders for guidance

People turn to opinion leaders for guidance

Gordon Allport and Leo Postman
Psychologists

  • Ran “broken telephone” in a lab setting and got smack-talked by Teppy

Norbert Elias
Sociologist

  • The Civilizing Process
  • Aristocracy -> good manners -> state government

Joseph Gusfield
Sociologist

  • The Symbolic Crusade (the one about 18th amendment banning alcohol)
  • Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and why it failed
  • Threat of the WASP lifestyle
  • I’m missing page 469 so yeah.

Charles Tilly
Fusion

  • Studied social movements
  • Successful Social movements can aid political causes
  • Job of sociologists: trace the “logic of violence” in the mobilization of social change.

Definitions: Starting Points Ch. 15-16

Estimated Reading Time: 00:01:39

Chapter 15: Politics and Ideologies

Politics: the processes by which individuals and groups act to promote their interests

Citizens: people who belong to a state. Citizenship developed out of the relative freedom of city life, granting equal treatment for all residents.

State: the set of institutions with authority to make the rules that govern a society. Weber wrote that the state “claims a monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory”.

Ideologies: coherent sets of interrelated beliefs about the nature of the world that imply or demand certain courses of political, social, or economic action.
(Compare with ideology in Chapter 16)

Power: according to Weber, “the ability of persons or groups to achieve their objectives, even when opposed”. Said another way, power is the capacity to compel people to act in certain ways, and politics is the process by wich people gain and exercise this power.

Authority: power that is considered legitimate by the people who are subject to it.

Propaganda: mass communication whose purpose is to influence people’s political opinions and actions.

Civil liberties: freedoms that protect the individual against government. These include freedom of speech, assembly, and movement, and freedom of the press.

Civil rights: rights we consider all people deserve under all circumstances, without regard to race, ethnicity, age, sex, or other personal qualities.

Chapter 16: Social Movements and Voluntary Associations

Voluntary association: a group formed by voluntary membership. Unlike other voluntary associations, social movements usually have a political goal.

Social movements: organized groups of people with an agenda or plan for social change, to be achieved through agitation and political pressure.

Ideology: a strategy, program, or point of view that justifies the goals and strategies of the movement: for example, it may justify demands for gender equality.
(Compare with ideologies in Chapter 15)

Counter-ideology: an ideology that supports alternative social values and challenges the dominant ideology.

Dominant ideology: an ideology that supports the status quo and the interests of the ruling class.