Summary: Random Facts

Still work in progress.

Ctrl + F is your best friend.

Random Facts (from lectures):

  • 6% of everyone who’s ever lived on Earth is alive
  • 4.3 million Canadians aged 12/older were injured in 2009/2010 (15% of population)
  • 63% of seniors/50% of adolescents were injured in falls
  • 27% among 12-to-19-year-old males; 14% adults; 9% seniors
  • 2 billion people lacking water
  • 800 million people in 1750 -> 7 billion now
  • % humans in less-developed countries: 80%
  • Canada: diamond population pyramid
  • Ulrich Beck: risk society
  • Most urban growth: 500 000 citizens or fewer
  • Concentric ring theory
  • Louis Wirth: experience of cities (careful inattention)
  • Charles Perrow: KISS (keep it simple, stupid); more complex technologies more likely to fail
  • Charles Perrow: serious technological accidents result of flawed human organization
  • 2.5% innovators, 16% laggards
  • Merton: CUDO
  • Tepperman: The Dostoevsky Effect
  • Theodicy
  • Social gospel: CCF-NDP
  • 1985+ : Canadians never going to church has risen 50%
  • ~40% American parents believe violence contributes “a lot” to violence in children
  • 90% of top grossing films depict killing in 2000s, compared to 40% in 1940s
  • CBC is a crown corporation
  • Katz and Lasarsfeld
  • The average parent devotes 1 hour every day on caring for children and others
  • 60% of US teens use internet any given day
  • Under 18: 80% active on Facebook, 50% text daily
  • Internet usage increased by 121% from 2000 in CAN
  • Foucault – governmentality
  • Most sustainable: Norway; most failed: Somalia
  • C. Wright Mills: ruling elite theory
  • Jeffery Sachs: happiness study
  • Women form 22% of all MPs
  • Exclusion/decoupling/disability

Summary: Concepts

Ctrl + F is your best friend.

Concepts from Lectures:

  • Positive vs. preventative checks (kill is positive)
  • Mechanical vs. organic solidarity (marines behind tanks; bio after mech)
  • Secondary deviance: career in rulebreaking
  • Primary vs. secondary groups (Cooley, primary more intimate)
  • Nuclear vs. extended family
  • Primary vs. secondary socialization (primary first)
  • I vs. me
  • Manifest vs. latent function
  • Functional vs. substantive definitions of religion
  • Social constructionism vs. essentialism
  • Political science vs. political sociology
  • Traditional vs. charismatic vs. rational-legal authority
  • Authoritarian vs. totalitarian vs. liberal-democratic states
  • Authoritative vs. authoritarian vs. permissive vs. neglectful parenting (Diane Baumrind)

Week 11 Lecture: Starting Points Ch. 16

Estimated Reading Time: 00:08:17

Voluntary Associations and Social Movements

“When I fist saw you, it’s winter; now it’s winter too.”
Aww Teppy getting all sentimental ❤

“This is ultimately what sociology is about — it’s about what people can accomplish when they get together.” -Teppy

*Lean In* — book by ? from Facebook — career women are limited in how they think.
Teppy’s wife think that the argument above is stupid.

What are we looking for in life?

Ordinary people make history.
Is history made by heroes and prophets?
NO!
We are all making history.

What do people want?
— Happiness.
Everyone is in search for happiness.

There are a lot of people who believe that happiness is in buying stuff.
We need to understand — what gives people happiness?

Jeffery Sachs did happiness research.
Humanity would be much happier if
-it focused on alleviating poverty and sickness int he developing world
-instead of focusing on increasing economic output in rich and emerging countries.

Who are the happiest?
-Canadians are among the happiest people on the planet.
-Top prize goes to Scandinavians.
-Most equal people are most happy, it seems.

Happiness does not lie in consumerism. Or environmental destruction.
Economic development doesn’t [necessarily] make you happy and destroys the planet in the process.

“Family life is extraordinarily important to people’s mental well-being.” – Teppy

Estimated Reading Time 00:08:17

Society is a cooperative enterprise
-We work together to further our own interests
-In doing so, we further our collective interest
Beyond that, we adhere to collective values and commitment to a larger entity — ie. society
Shared, mutually rewarding histories of life together are effective sources of control

“It’s a really complicated thing! But that’s what sociology is about. I hope that’s not news to you.” -Teppy

Voluntary associations and social movements bring most change
-voluntary association
(A group formed by voluntary membership)
-social movement
(Organized grope of people with an agenda or plan for social change, to be achieve through agitation and political pressure)

Voluntary associations and sociability
-voluntary associations contribute to social integration
-promote familiarity, common goals, shared experiences
-sociability, pure play, is a basic human desire

“One good thing about voluntary association is that it gives people opportunities to meet strangers.” – Teppy

“Sociability is about fun. Fun is really good. You probably are not having a lot of fun going to U of T. Maybe the fun people are not in class today. You guys are the non-fun people. ;p” -Teppy

Concerns about the decline of civil society through cocooning
-civil society — the society that depends on play and altruism, on clubs, support groups, and voluntary associations
-Has civil society gone into decline?
-Evidence of “cocooning”: going home every night and isolating the world from you

*Bowling Alone* (2000) by **Robert Putnam:**
-Since 1950, there has been a general decline in active civil participation
-most obvious in strong signs of political disengagement
-also, underline of participation in clubs and charities
-People are more isolated and fragmented and communities lose “social capital” and social cohesion
-Putnam credits change to the effects of modern technology

-The popularity of league bowling in the US reached a peak for men in the 1960s
-now in decline
-more people bowl alone

-Have seen similar declines in other activities

-In the last 35 years, there has been a steady decline in home entertaining and dinner parties
-the evidence is still out on this
-why should a decline in voluntary associations matter?

“Bowling, dinner parties, political participation, they are all part of the same thing — the deterioration of society.” -Teppy

The benefits of voluntary associations
-“Schools for society”

Familiarity breeds trust
-Familiarity and sociability are important sources of tolerance
-People work best together under non-competitive conditions
-e.g. Teams, bands, and gangs
-Trust in key to social order, cooperation, and democracy
-voluntary associations promote trust

Trust through voluntary associations
-Social norms are transmitted and shared through networks of connected groups
-Shared norms help to increase the national level of generalized trust

Milgram’s small world and networks
“Brokers” link strangers to one another, increasing general trust

The history of social movements
Social movements evolve
-in 18th and 19th centuries, most were poorly organized and targeted local issues
-lacked resources
In the Early 20th century, they developed more complex division of labour and targeted the most pressing social issues
-economic equality
-political representation
-redistribution of wealth

Robinhood: reliant on a particular individual; no particular agenda; no particular plan

Social movements are everywhere
-social change has been occurring at an unprecedented rate in the past few decades
-environmental movement
-feminist movement
-anti-free trade movement
-black power movement
-gay and lesbian movements

Social movements have different kinds of goals
-Revolutionary social movements are aimed at changing everyone radically
-other social movements focus on limited goals or limited populations

everyone and radical: revolutionary
specific and limited: alternative
specific and radical: redemptive
everyone and limited: reformative

“Social movements can be focused on sects. Not sex. Sects. S-E-C-T-S. Religion sects, etc.”

All social movements pass through stages of change.
-a build-up of stress
-public awareness of a problem, a trigger event, and
-public opposition to power-holder policies

“The thing that most makes sociologists insane is the argument that ‘you can’t conclude anything; everyone is different.'” – Teppy

All social movements bureaucratize after obtaining enough resources
-Recall Weber’s discussion of the routinization of charisma in religion
-Not all social movements succeed, but they all bureaucratize

Stages of social movements:
emerge->coalesce->bureaucratize->cooptation/repression/go mainstream/failure/success->decline

One theory of movements: the breakdown of social order
-According to functionalists, social movements emerge when widespread changes have reduced social cohesion
-Social movements are an attempt to restore order
“Breakdown theory”
Implies that social movements are irrational

“Resource mobilization theory”
-Social movements are attempts to fight inequality
-inequality is always present
-tools to combat inequality vary

Joseph Gusfield: *Symbolic Crusade* (1986)
-prohibition movement in the US
-The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) sought nationwide “moral” improvement

Prohibition was a “status war”
-success would confer status on the WCTU and its members: small-town WASPs
–traditional moral authority was being threatened by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration
-battle for prohibition shows importance of
–expressive politics and well as instrumental politics
–status politics as well as class politics

You would have expressive politics vs. instrumental politics.

Identity politics
Through 19th/20th century: Marxists think politics was about class conflict.
But increasingly we think that politics is about status warfare.

The role of ideology in social movements
-ideology:
–a way of perceiving reality
–an agenda for social, political, or economic action
-ideology is “dominant” when support by powerful groups
–also, when it supports the status quo
-a counter-ideology is opposed by powerful groups and opposes the status quo

Ideologies have multiple roles
-in relation to underlying inequalities of society,
–reformist ideologies identify and attempt to reduce them
–radical ideologies attempt to erase them
-Ideologies can dispel “false consciousness”
–a view of the world out of sync with objective reality
–i.e., ideologies can be empowering and educational

Ideologies mobilize political action
-reformist ideologies call for minor changes to society, and keep basic rules the same
-e.g. Canadian policies of Medicare, welfare, and old age assistance
–not intended to bring equality
–only intended as “safety nets” for the most vulnerable

“Believe it or not we are nearing the end. What would you do if you don’t have somebody talking fast at you?” -Teppy

-Identity politics — a substitute for class-based politics
-concerned with the welfare of particular kinds of people
-goals: equity, dignity, cultural recognition

The Women’s movement: a triumph of identity politics
The women’s movement has increased equity, dignity, and cultural recognition for women
-has also increased their participation in the public sphere
has it increased solidarity among women?
-too many different kinds of women
Has it been inclusionary for males?
-varies from group to group

Movements and parties
-Some movements turn into political parties or are co-opted into existing political parties
-e.g. Green parties
When movements become parties, goals change somewhat
-concern with trying to win and keep political power
But there is no Woman’s Party
-How have women fared in the political presentation of their demands?

Greater participation by women has changed political life only slightly
-Feminist perspective: the state tends to ignore women’s needs
-Does the increase of women in politics make a difference?
Mainly in Scandinavian countries with a social welfare tradition
There, women make a great difference in what is legislated

How to increase gender equality in Canada
Countries with proportional representation have more women in office
-higher voter turnout == more female politicians
But Sylvia Bashevkin notes Canadians are uncomfortable putting women in positions of power
e.g. media treats women with less respect

In Canada, women rarely hold the top positions
-women tend to hold lower level, less-powerful positions
-women only make up 22% of all MPs
-only one female prime minister in history
KIM CAMPBELL

Impediments to women’s political participation and political success
-financial barriers
-lack of access to helpful networks
-opposition within political parties
-media portrayals of women

What do people want?
Much of the research sociologists do is guided by seven value preferences:
-life over death
-health over sickness
-knowing over not-knowing
-cooperation over conflict
-freedom of movement over physical restraint
-self-determination over direction by others
-freedom of expression over communication restraint

“If you are feeling frustration over this class, you’re probably experiencing communication restraint.” -Teppy

Why don’t (most) people get what they want?
-Aspects of social organization and culture limit people’s opportunities to get what they want out of life

EXCLUSION: people have different access to opportunities (discrimination/lack of credentials)
DECOUPLING: lack of information of social connections
SOCIAL DISABILITY: some people are taught to NOT compete
-This crippling socialization is *social disability*
-leads to lower performance

Your role in the end
think about what you have learned in the course
ask questions and don’t buy into other people’s bullshit!
help sociology improve the world!

GOODBYE

Week 10 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 15

Estimated Reading Time 00:08:12

Lecture 9

Politics and Governance

“It’s really hot over here. That’s why I’ve stripped down.” -Teppy

“Your test scores are probably being posted this very minute.” -Teppy

Median: 75%. Mean: 72.5%

“Today I want to talk about politics. Politics is not my favourite subject, I don’t know why. Every now and then I enjoy talking about it for a little.” -Teppy

What’s the consequence of living in Canada vs. the USA? One major difference is in politics. We can’t compare society without comparing the political structures. These differences come from culture, economics, history, etc. etc.

Defining “governance”
Politics is about states. States govern.
Governance = collective decision making + policy implementation
Governance also refers to all norms and processes related to the delivery of public goods.

“Social institutions are not mortar and bricks. Social institutions are norms and processes. So what do we mean by public goods? It includes things like healthcare, education, etc… that the public relies on the state to do for us.” -Teppy

So you are turning over a large power to the state.
Governance encompasses the regulatory framework and authority of the state. It’s about the state but also how the state affects the non-state (i.e. things like family, markets, etc. etc.).

You’d think families are private. But the state is interested in the family as well.

“There’s a very strong connection between the state and non-governmental networks which also delivers public goods.” -Teppy
e.g. University of Toronto relies on the state. For funding. State also direct the U of T. Should the state remove funding this is a huge crisis.
e.g. NGOs, professional associations (P. Eng., CMA, etc.)

How to measure good governance
The World Bank has developed six measures of good governance:
1.Voice and accountability
2.Political stability and absence of violence
3.Government effectiveness
4.Regulatory quality
5.Rule of law
6.Control of corruption
e.g. Norway does exceedingly well in all these dimensions.

Related concept: governmentality
“Governmentality” — a term invented by Michel Foucault in 1978 to describe the development of modern states and of liberal political economy

How does the state accomplish “rule”?
-Foucault’s work broke with critical social science literature
-he sakes not “who benefits” but rather what and who is being governed — and how.
Post-Marxism (Foucault): the state is distanced (a little bit) from the ruling class. Marxism is an oversimplification.

State rule and non-state (e.g.) rule are connected
-Governmentality studies put aside the distinction between state and non-state governance.
-In this way, Foucault broke with the Marxist approach

The trick is getting people to rule themselves.
-Foucault interested in the rise of science.
-Foucault examined liberalism’s promise to govern us by aligning governing objectives with out desire for autonomy.
-i.e. to connect freedom with public constraint.

Debate: university is not producing enough technicians, artisans, crafters.
Government might decide to raise tuition to reduce number of people receiving education — this is influencing the members of the non-state!

People behave themselves by striving to achieve normality
“Governmentality” — manipulating notions of normality.

“Governmentality”
-refers to innovations, roughly originating in late 18th century Europe
-controls “populations” without laying down prohibitory rules or individually disciplining deviants.

Interesting fact: number of diagnosable illnesses increased over the past 50 years!
Illness is a social acceptable form of deviance. What we’re doing is saying that the medical profession is having more and more power to excuse people.

Incentives and expert knowledge
-In general, governmental power tends ot work on people indirectly
-by incentivizing and rewarding certain activities
-by using expert or state knowledge to do so.

Some differences between political sociology and political science
-**Political science** deals mainly with machinery of gov’t and public admin
-**Political sociology** deals with relations between political institutions and **other social institutions**.

Central concern of political sociology: bases of authority
TRADITIONAL: e.g. Louis XIV of France
By the end of WWI almost all traditional rulers (in Europe) are gone.
CHARISMATIC: e.g. Adolf Hitler
Charisma is known by its effects, not its traits.

Rational-legal authority
Cf., Foucault on governmentality
Most common type of authority in modern states.
Absence of rational-legal authority -> “failed” state.
Beaureaucratic organization: characterized by rational-legal authority
Legitimacy of authority depends on codified rules

Example of the sociological approach: Seymour Martin Lipset’s “First New Nation”
-Examiens role of politics in making American society different from others
Lipset: a Marxist. Why didn’t the Marxists find success in the United States?

Key features of the US:
1.Revolutionary war
2.Commitment to two core values: equality and achievement
These values form basis of all American institutions: family, school, politics, etc.

The role of revolution in nation-building
-The American revolution established a basis for legal-rational authority (don’t need to listen to the Queen anymore)
-Created a new republic
-Created a new set of **constitutional** rights
-Created a new sense of community

Sociologists also study the role of class influence in modernization
B. Moore (former Marxist) explores connection between class influence and type of state
-compares societies in examining democracy, equality, and class formation
-disagrees with Marx’s view that working class revolution would produce equality necessary for democracy
-also challenges “modernization theorist” who believed in only one route to modernity

The way a state becomes modern:
-upper class (and military) domination leads to modernity through fascism (Germany, Japan, Italy, etc)
-middle class domination leads to modernity through liberal democracy (states)
-peasant domination leads to modernity through communism (China)
-so far, no working class domination has led to modernization

Moore believed “bourgeois revolution” brings western democracy in **5 ways**
1.Undermines role of monarchy or aristocracy
2.Moves rural economy to independent small farming, away from large feudal estates
3.Helps eliminate impoverished peasantry and landed classes dependent on this exploitation
4.Makes bourgeoisie less likely to ally with aristocracy against peasants/workers (as in fascism)
5.Breaks from the past, economically, politically and ideologically
Like Lipset, Moore focuses on the occasional importance of violence in setting democracy

Like Lipsets, Moore sees the value of cross-national comparison
-Both use cross-national, comparative and historical research, like Marx, Weber, Marx, etc.
-Comparison helps to identify laws of societal change
-also useful in studying “failed states” (more later)

One commonality between successful modern states: rule of law

Without written rules…
-you can’t have rule of law
-you can’t have predictable economic life (economic growth, investment)
-predictable social life (e.g. in families, schools, workplaces)
-systematic growth of science and technology

Features that distinguish the top 10 “failed” states form sustainable states
-include demographic pressures, refugees, civil war
Also important:
-corruption, low confidence in government, inability to control economy, and no rule of law
SUMMARY: NO PREDICTABILITY

Most sustainable state: Norway
Most failed state: Somalia
Question of interest: what combination of social, historical, political, economic, and cultural factors **produce success**?

Not all rational-legal states are just or sustainable
3 types of rational-legal state:
**Authoritarian**: use force to ensure compliance
-leader is often dictator
-often cooperates military, church, multinational corporations
e.g. South American countries (Argentina)
**Totalitarian**: more extreme, stable versions of authoritarian states
-intervenes in both public and private life: complete loyalty and compliance
e.g. China?!!?!?!? (One child policy)
**Liberal-democratic**:meow mewwowow

“Telling people how many children to have is an extremely totalitarian thing to do.” -Teppy

Authoritarian state controls people mainly throughout he military and church. e.g. many latin American dictatorships

Totalitarian state controls all social institutions, including schools and families

By contrast, a liberal-democratic state reflects the goals and values of lalalalla

Types of Liberal Democratic State (most sustainable)
In ancient Athens, all citizens would come up to one place and talk about politics.
This is cool, but majority of Athenians were non-citizens.
Impossible in Canada.

We have **representative democracy** with **constitutional monarchy**.

Ways of voting
-Methods of voting vary between democracies
-Canada uses “first past the post” method
-Candidate with most number of votes in riding is the winner
-A popular alternative is **proportional representation**

Mainstream and minority parties
-Only liberal and conservative parties have ever held federal government
–never NDP
-NDP began as Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)
–socialist, farm, co-operative …

Many groups are unrepresented
-The Canadian voting system leaves many unrepresented.

“60% of Canadians voted for Stephen Harper. Stephen Harper is the prime minister.

“60% of Canadians voted for Stephen Harper. Stephen Harper is the prime minister.

“60% of Canadians voted for Stephen Harper. Stephen Harper is the prime minister. Are you seeing a problem here?” -Teppy

Voter turnout
-Voter turnout has steadily declined over years to about 60%
-Younger people less likely to vote
-Those with higher education, boring in Canada or living in Quebec are most politically active

(Non-Democratic) Elites in Democracies
-C Wright Mill’s “ruling elite theory”: in liberal democracies, a small privileged groups controls society
-elites share similar interests and views, serve on same boards of largest companies, and create networks.

-There is Canadian elite at top of corporations, linked through common networks and ideas about power

The (partly) autonomous state
e.g. Supreme Court of Canada (not swayed by politics)
-The state usually tries to resist short-term demands from ruling elites (e.g., to reduce elite taxes) to fulfill longer term goals (e.g., to educate labour force)
-Neo-Marxists view state as partly autonomous — not always responding to demands of elites

The development of citizenship rights
-In England, legal rights developed over centuries
-By 18th Century, fair and predictable treatment was common in law courts
-Political citizenship developed in 19th century
-but women in Canada did not get right to vote until 1919
-Social citizenship developed around Great Depression in Britain, Canada, and US
-social safety nets like welfare, health insurance, old age pensions, etc.

“Neither legal citizenship nor political citizenship mean anything without effective social citizenship.” -Teppy

Week 8 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 14

Estimated Reading Time 00:04:31

I burned my right hand on a soldering iron today. D’:
So uh, today is not my best note-taking day.
These are about as much as I can get down typing with my left hand.
:\

Lecture 8

Mass Media and the Social Construction of Reality

“hello.” -teppy

We got a test next week. Check BlackBoard.

You should also vote for the UTSU election.
Don’t vote for renew they are corrupted. Vote for the independent candidate.

sociologists are interested in people construct fantasy worlds.
so yeah media.

“It’s rare for students to read newspaper anymore.” -Teppy

“I prefer the Globe and Mail; the writing is less idiotic.” -Teppy

“[Pointing at the newspaper] This is a fantasy world.” -Teppy

We are in constructed realities. We do this through social interaction. Reality, as we experience it, is always up for debate. Different newspapers present different viewpoints of what is important (and worthy of the front page).

Reality is constantly being constructed. Since social construction isn’t real, it needs to be reaffirmed.

How do you influence change in a society where majority of social institutions want to keep the status quo?

Sociological view of media:
they construct reality. they have biases.
“We live in a world surrounded by lies.” -Teppy

What can we do in this ocean of lies?
Mainstream media convey simple, stereotypical images of reality.
e.g. women portrayed as sexual objects

Tracing a causal link between image and reality is almost impossible.
If we live like Hollywood, we’d either be shooting or screwing all the time.

Some say media encourage violence by modelling violence.

40% of american parents believe that media contributes “a lot” to violence in children.

The percentage of top grossing US films were 90% violent in the past decade, compared with 40% in the 1940s.

Video-games may also influence behaviour:
playing violent games may increase aggressive behaviour.

“Cultivation” is the possible link:
*Cultivation theory*: heavy TV viewing -> mean world syndrome

But cause and effects are still muddled! People who have violent inclinations may consume more media.

Also some data don’t support the hypothesis at all.
An increase in video game consumption has occurred alongside a decrease in juvenile crimes.

Media are “agenda-setting.” e.g. We don’t normally think about Africa until the media reminds us.
Media are also capable of creating “manias”.

Media filter content and promote mistrust of other viewpoints.
They use the same techniques to sell news as products.
Selling these news/products are based on panic and shame.
Extremely powerful sociopsychological factors.

Media creates moral panics and folk devils.
e.g. Child predator: child molest is the moral panic, child predators (e.g. LG/LB hunters) are folk devils.
Moral panics are short-lived but do have consequences such as hurt feelings and mistrust.

Media and Politics
“News” as presented by mainstream media is a carefully designed commercial good.

It matters who owns the media
Media seeks to appease its owners.
It matters if media is publicly owned rather than privately owned.
Public media have less bias maybe.

Concern: most of mass media are privately owned.

Some public media are owned as a Crown Corporation; owned by the government but operates independently from it.

Since 1983, the number of corporations that control the majority of US media companies has (roughly) reduced from 50 to 5.

Editors and reporters make choices about who and what to cover.

Motivations
-profit
-powerful friends
-influence on public policy in their own interest

Media tend to promote the dominant ideology of society.
Tends to be friendly towards the most powerful members of society.
Less powerful have less money so why portray them?

Are we really defenceless?
Fortunately we are intelligent people who can think for ourselves

Katz and Lazarsfeld
*Personal Influence: the part played by people in the flow of mass communications*
Studies how influence flows from the media to the audience.
Researched for Coca-Cola on condition that they get to keep the data.
Came out of survey for private interest.
High quality information!
Central Query: how to change people’s minds?

Two-step flow of communications
-Earlier theories assumed a direct flow, but no!
-people listen and emulate people they respect (opinion leaders)
-ergo, goal of advertising: change the minds of opinion leaders
(reminds us of the “small-world” theory)

Where are we now?
A short history of media 1400-2100AD
-In medieval Europe, monks copied manuscripts believed to be the word of God
-The printing press spread literacy.
-It mass produced information that people could interpret themselves.
-Protestantism: interpret Bible for themselves!
-Everyone could be a knowledge consumer.

How do you consume knowledge?
-go to school
-buy “how-to” books
-consume the media
People have been more informed of the world than ever before.

It’s easier and easier to be knowledge producers.
Today, ANYONE can be both a knowledge producer and a knowledge consumer.

Today, the internet is the first place we now go to to seek information.
Increasingly, we trust the information we get in this way.

As of 2009:
60% of teens go on internet any given day
80% reported being active on Facebook.

New reciprocal links between producers and consumers
-we don’t need to rely on the mainstream media anymore!

The Internet is a Form of Alternative Mass Communication
More than half of internet users contribute.

Existence of virtual communities does not replace face-to-face relations

Internet censorship issues
Internet is somewhat anarchic
Voluntary controls doesn’t seem to work.

Week 7 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 13

Estimated Reading Time 00:09:09

Religion and Secularization

Lecture by Dr. William Flynn

“Everyone calls me Philly. I grew up in Harlem.” – Dr. William Flynn.

Harlem: pretty religious society.
People say “Happy holidays!” instead of “Merry Christmas!”

Religion as a social phenomenon.
Weber Marx and Durkheim.
Civil Religion.
Final Reflections.

Religion as a social phenomenon
-Why do people “need” religion? What do they get from it?
-Identity
-Meaning/purpose
-Moral/ethical framework
-HOW??!?!??!
-shared ideas, values, doctrines, beliefs/
-performing religious ceremonies/rituals
-membership in religious organizations
-Does God exist? Evil? Is there an afterlife?
-Sociologists don’t really care!

Substantive definition of religion
-defining religious through its content
Functional definition
-defining religion through what it does (creates shared identity, meaning, etc).

WEBER, MARX, AND DURKHEIM
-Rapid social changes in Western Europe in the 18th/19th century
-Religion is on the decline, secularization is on the rise
-“Secularization thesis” — nonreligious beliefs, values, etc will eventually replace religious ones

Max Weber
-“Disenchantment of the world”
-Religion once provided people with a sense of meaning, values, and purpose
-Max Weber: “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” (1905)
-A world of rationality and science undermines religious enchantment

Marx and Critical Theory
Religion is a product of human activity.
-“Man makes religion; religion does not make man.”
-A form of social control.
-Helps to explain and legitimize inequality and injustice
-“Religion… is the opium of the people.”
(causes delusion and numbs pain)
-“Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.”

Durkheim and Functionalism
-Religion comes from ‘religare’: to bind or hold together.
-Religion functions to maintain social solidarity
-“Elementary Forms of Religious Life” (1912): What is the most essential form that religion takes in social life?
(DNA of religion)
-Division between the *SACRED* and the *PROFANE*
-Those beings considered sacred become a *TOTEM* for a group
-What the totem is is irrelevant. What matters is that there is a totem.
-Shared symbol that unites all members through their identification with the totem.
e.g. Canadian Flag
-Rituals and ceremonies enacted around the totem
-*”COLLECTIVE EFFERVESCENCE”*

Civil Religion
-Robert Bellah *Civil Religion in America*
-Secularization? Maybe people are just religious in new and different ways?
-How might US nationalism function as a type of civil religion?

Reflections
-Are we living in an era of secularization?
-Marx, Weber, and Durkheim?
-Marx: opium of the people?
-Weber: disenchantment and re-enchantment?
-Durkheim: totems and solidarity?

Lecture by Lorne Tepperman

What problem does religious doctrine solve?
science as a replacement for religion
in 19th century there is conflict between scientific and religious thoughts
Why would someone want to have religion?
The frighteningness of the universe.
Verifiable certainty: you are a tiny insignificant peck of dust, and you are gonna die.

“There’s a world of suffering out there that every human being, being made of flesh and blood, is heir to.” – Teppy
Religion gives us a way of understanding suffering.

Humans have a need to understand the world as meaningful and unified: reality of suffering makes the world seem cruel and random.
THEODICY: an attempt to explain and justify why supernatural forces allow suffering
(Easy to remember: sounds like idiocy.)

Most religions create and uphold a “community of believers”
-before mass communication and mass media, most social life was centred around religion
-thus, religion are sources of social organization — sources of comfort and support

The sociology of religion
-Sociologists do not assume the real existence of a god or gods
Sociologists are concerned with
-how humans enact their beliefs
-how religious and social institutions interact

Functional definitions of religion
-what religion does for people
-e.g. provide social cohesion, meaning
-elements to achieve this include rituals and communal activities

“In this sense, nationalism is a form of religion too!” -Teppy
“It calls to attention the fact that you do not have to have a God to gain many of the functional payoffs of religion.” -Teppy

Ritual creates social cohesion
-Ritual is a behaviour – a set of behaviours, where people identify

Robert Bellah and civil religion
Robert Bellah called attention to *civil religion*

Religions Differ in the importance they attach to ritual
-Some religions have a lot of rituals, some don’t.
Rituals range from:
-simple to elaborate
-secret to conspicuous
-symbolic to literal
Rites of passage: rituals that strip away an “old identity”
-used to mark, commemorate, and accomplish transitions in life
.eg. birth–coming of age–graduattion–marriage–parenthood–DEATH

The *central* importance of belief
-To be religious in any society is to “believe”
Weber is really interested in religious beliefs (not just totems)
-Every religion has key non-negotiable beliefs
-e.g. belief in multiple gods vs. one god
-e.g. belief in supernatural entities such as angels, nymphs

The normative content of religion
-Most religions tell people how to lead a moral or ethical life
-Most/all religions include rules of behaviour
-e.g. The Ten Commandments; the Golden Rule

The Secular Attack on Religion:
The Age of Enlightenment sets the stage for modernity
-Advocated reason as the main source for legitimacy and authority in decision-making.
-Tradition and belief should be substituted by reason and evidence

A Mix of Progressive Ideas
-Enlightenment philosophies were contradictory or divergent; but they are all grounded in reason, logic, and/or science
“That’s where sociology comes from.” -Teppy
“Sociology is profoundly antitraditional; in fact it is (more or less) antireligious.” -Teppy

Religion vs. Science
The Debate of the Enlightenment
-e.g. American society.
Weber says we are progressing towards a *rational-legal* society.

The exception to the “Enlightenment Rule”: The US
-Though technologically modern, Americans hold many pre-modern religious beliefs
The three countries in which people are least likely to accept the theory of evolution are Cyprus, Turkey, and the US.

“This is crazy! This is crazy!” -Teppy
In all societies, as science becomes a stronger force, people would put aside pre-rational beliefs. But even though US has high level of scientific prosperity, it is still a pretty conservative country in terms of religion.

The Social Gospel Movement
-Religion isn’t always backward-looking
-Developed in the late 19th century
-The Social Gospel movement developed in the late 19th century
-an important progressive force in Canadian society between roughly 1880 and 1940
-Applied Christian doctrine to the solution of problems like unemployment, poverty, poor housing, and family breakdown

“Many people participate in the religion of consumerism. Every weekend they go out for consumerist therapy and it gives their life meaning.” -Teppy

Sometimes religion is a mechanism by which the disadvantaged express themselves. People have used religion to mobilize the disadvantaged.

Fighting poverty in the cities
-First appeared during a decade of political corruption and economic distress (the 1880s)
“The state didn’t have welfare back then.” -Teppy
-Soon, Canadian churches were creating urban institutions such as settlement houses and missions to help the poor
-e.g. The Fred Victor Mission founded in Toronto in 1894 and still in existence.

Fighting sexual inequality, prostitution, and alcoholism
-Older causes likes temperance and the fight against prostitution were easily added to these urban initiatives
-e.g. the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
“It didn’t work, but it is an attempt for women to fight for their equality.” -Teppy

Fighting for farmers and unions
-The WCTU helped empower women in public affairs and linked to the women’s suffrage movement
-The social gospel movement also influenced the leaders

Social gospel goes into decline
-After WWI
due in part to the failure of Prohibition–which did not gain support in Canada.
also more multicultural immigrants came

The shift from religious to political mobilization
-secularization of Canadian society and the politicization of protest
-Increasingly, political movements and parties seized

The CCF-NDP emerged
-Social Gospel leaders such as JS Woodsworth turned their efforts to political organization.
-For Woodsworth, this led in 1932 to the founding of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) – later the NDP

The Churches weakened and united
-The churches most associated with the social gospel weakened, due to
-economic depression
-religious secularization
-political and union mobilization
-backlash against prohibition
The merger in the United Church in 1925
-Methodists, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians

Political offspring of Social Gospel transform Canada
-Baptist minister Tommy (TC) Douglas – brings laws to Saskatchewan
-Background in CCF
-e.g. universal healthcare, family allowances, and old age pensions
-All these laws were adapted later as laws in Canada

In the end, the poor used religion to change society
-The poor brought socialists to power in Canada
-Today, the poor give the highest percentage of their income to charity

Religious cycles: Charisma and the routinization of Charisma
-Weber sees charismatic (non-traditional) authority as a recurring force in human history
-It alternates with the “routinization of charisma”
-a recurring alternation of sacred and profane, nonrational and rational concerns

3 basis of authority: traditional, rational-legal, charismatic.

Charisma as a quality of leadership
-We see charisma when we see how people respond to a certain individual
-Charisma = a certain quality which sets apart an individual from ordinary men

Charisma as personal followership
-Charisma is the main counterweight to bureaucratic rigidity in mass democracies
–by its non-rational nature, it is alien to the established institution of society
–as a source of innovation, charisma is a force for social change
e.g. Protestant Reformation led by Martin Luther.
-Followers respond to charisma by recognizing that it is their duty to follow the leader

Charismatic authority is often “routinized” during the lifetime of the leader.
This ensures that he or she will be succeeded either by
-a bureaucracy vested with rational-legal authority, or by
-a return to the institutionalized structures of tradition

Role of non-rational religion in rational social life
“The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” by Max Weber.
-first translated to English by Talcott Parsons.
-Religion doesn’t necessarily prevent change; sometimes it enables change!
Capitalism is due to Protestantism.

In Calvinism, there is a belief that future is predestined. You might think this takes pressure off people… But what Weber claims happened is this: people are itching to find out if they are going to heaven or hell! People are looking for signs.
Protestants believing in predestination work really hard, not because it will lead me to heaven, but because it will tell me if I’ll go to heaven or hell.

Calvinism has an elective affinity to capitalism.

The Secularization Debate:
-Weber argues that religion can support progress
-The enlightenment theorists (Voltaire, Marx) argue religion hinders progress
–Secularization theory argues that the influence of religion must decline for progress and modernization to take place.

What is secularization?
-The result of declines in religion, etc

An Example of social differentiation
“Religion plays a smaller part in life.” -Teppy
Seems to be inevitable result for industrialization and economic development.

Falling church attendance suggests falling religiosity

Even in religious countries, religious attendance is down
eg. Islamic countries

People are also less concerned with marrying “within their faith”.
Hindus tend to marry other Hindus; Buddhists, not so much.

Week 6 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 12

Estimated Reading Time 00:09:08

Lecture 6: Schools and Education

Guest Lecture by ___ ____.

Four Sociological Perspectives on Education
-functionalism: social order and stability
-critical theory: social inequality
-feminism: gender inequality
-symbolic interactionism: social meaning and personality development

Hypothetical situation:
You lost marks because you didn’t follow the correct citation format. YOU COMPLAIN. Then you get the following response:
1.Responsible employee
If you don’t follow guidelines, you get fired.
2.Value of university degree
If students can’t even follow simple guidelines, what would that make our university? Do you think this is a joke? Do you think the university is a joke? Do you think I’m a joke?
3.Leadership skills
Small portion of your grade is based on your ability to follow instructions. If leaders don’t follow laws, what would become of our country?

Functionalism:
-Society is a complex system with different parts that work together to promote social stability.
-Behaviour is governed by stable patterns of relationsh
-Focus on social norms, values, customs, and traditions
-Main question: how can major institutions create consensus on core social values and, thus, promote social stability?

Talcott Parsons
-Modern functionalist. American. From Harvard.
-Strong social values and norms act as the very concrete that holds our society together.
-The school system must train people to become functioning adults.
-Children enter a school system and cease to be an individual. They are a part of social groups.
1.Socialization: students learn social norms and values
2.Selection: individuals allocated different positions based on personal merit

*Socialization:*
Students must internalize norms and values.
Positive sanctions: encourage desirable behaviour
Negative sanctions: discourage undesirable behaviour
5% deduction = minor negative sanction.

Positive sanctions are usually more prevalent when children are younger. e.g. stickers/pizza parties/etc.
Most sanctions you come across in the university are negative sanctions. e.g. 5% deduction for not following instructions.
It’s kinda difficult to acclimatize to this!
Most serious negative sanction: probation, failing, etc.

A functionalist would argue that this is a good thing. A university is the last stop before society. We need to prepare you for society! Tough love approach.

Socialization & Hypothetical Situation
Superficial lesson: follow instructions
Hidden fundamental value: respect authority
Authority -> socialization -> responsible employee/university degree/leadership skills.

For Parsons it’s paramount that people learn to respect authorities. Responsible employees respect authorities. Reputation of university associated with its students’ ability to respect authorities. Democratic leaders are accountable to the people, so no one is above the system. So even leaders need to work within the system.

*Selection:*
Meritocracy.
Merit: an earned and justifiable claim to:
a) Minor Positive Sanctions (e.g. respect or praise)
b) Major Positive Sanctions (e.g. high salary or university degree)
Ideally, judgement of merit should be neutral and everyone should be given an equal opportunity to succeed.

Meritocracy -> socialization -> responsible employee/university degree/leadership skills.

If a person can’t follow rules, he doesn’t have enough merit. If the university does not have a rigourous selection process, then good degrees are not dealt on basis of merit. Students who don’t follow instructions don’t have enough merit to become a leader.

BACK TO OUR EXAMPLE
Minor negative sanction: 5% deduction
Minor positive sanction: none
Major sanctions: job/degree value/possibility for leadership position

The only thing the professor told you is the minor negative sanction. He didn’t tell you about the major sanctions! But they are implied.

Hidden curriculum
“Lessons that are not normally considered part of the academic curriculum that schools unintentionally or secondarily provide for students.” – Tepperman 2011: 336

IN OUR EXAMPLE
Values promoted: authority and meritocracy
Value outcomes
Responsible employee -> obedient workforce
Value of university degree -> credentialism
Leadership skills -> social hierarchy

Alternative rationale:
If you want to gain more control over your own life, you have to learn how to work within a larger group of people. What would happen to a group if everyone followed their own rules? A groups will disintegrate if its members are not reliable, trust worthy, or, in shot, socially responsible.

TEPPERMAN’S LECTURE

Educate — from its latin root — means to “lead out of…”
Like Moses!

Education: the ideal — people expect “education” to:
-provide them with a wide range of skills to prepare them for an uncertain future
-in this way, help them surmount social obstacles and disadvantages

“In an unequal society like ours, many people in the society — especially the ones in the middle and at the bottom — embrace education as a means to overcome social disadvantages.” – Teppy

Credentialism
-The process works by awarding credentials to deserving candidates
-The advantaged few gain valuable credentials: tickets of entry into top occupational groups
-These powerful groups limit entry (M.D.’s) and demand high payment for their services
The best credential is (ideally) handed out to the best people

Why the high demand for credentials?
“The beauty of credentials is that, not only are they a ticket, but they are also based on seemingly fair basis of selection.” – Teppy
i.e. NOT inheritance.
“The beauty of going to medical school is that you get a lot of money without holding a gun to another person’s head.” -Teppy

Credentials have two sides. They get you what you want AND you look good.

For the last 50 years, college grades have been creeping upward.
-Since 1960, grades in North American universities have tended to rise due to grade inflation.
-This has not been limited to any particular kind of colleges, public or private.

Are people getting smarter? No. This represents pressure on institutions to give people higher grades.

Unequal access to the best credentials
-Students from better off families are more likely to attend university.
(Persisted for 35 years!)
-Therefore, class position continues to pass down from one generation to the next.

“For some reason, class tends to reproduce itself, not only in the inheritance of money, but also in the inheritance of credentials.” -Teppy

“Let me put it this way. The top half at U of T are exactly as smart as the students in Princeton. There is no difference in the quality of students or the quality in education. But there is a difference in the outcome.” -Teppy

Partly this social selection works by streaming poorer students AWAY FROM university.
-The effect of streaming is to reproduce inequality by giving less affluent students fewer credentials and opportunities.
-Like high tuition fees, this perpetuates class position from one generation to the next.

“A Great Training Robbery”? (Ivar Berg)
-On the other hand, many graduates are underemployed, given their educational attainments
-or overeducated, given the kinds of jobs available
-how much education do people really need?
-are we giving the right number of people the right kinds of educations

Why take university grads? University grads spent 4 years for additional socialization.
But how much education does one REALLY need? What makes a university degree different than a community college degree?

Women were particular beneficiaries of this expansion.
-In 2011, the post-secondary education attained by women aged 25-44 was twice as high as that of women aged 65+
-contributed to gender equalization

On the other hand, other groups continued to lag behind.
e.g. Inuit people.

Why educational expansion?
-A century ago, schools only provided basic skills and knowledge, discipline, and social training for work.
-Young people worked after high school.
-Today education leads to upward mobility.

More education = more secure employment
-since 1992, the unemployment rates of people with a college degree have remained lower than for anyone else.
“The data are absolutely unambiguous.” -Teppy

People on average make more money with more education.
Men with a university degree have the highest earnings.

Other factors affecting educational expansion
-The baby boom: parents wanted more opportunities for their children
-The need for public expenditure on research and development: economy demanded more research scientists, more patents and copyrights
-Expansion was particularly marked in the sciences and technology: Western government in a space race with USSR demanded more mathematical and scientific literacy

One institutional response: the rise of research universities
-Top North American universities aim to train researchers and produce research findings
-Undergraduate teaching is a (minor) aspect of this process
-student satisfaction and student employment are minor concerns
-This is reflected in the way University of Toronto measures its success, in its own eyes
-will look at an annual report shortly

The “Academic Revolution” by Jencks and Riesman
-Bureaucratization of American societies means:
-Graduate schools have rise to dominance with narrowly specialized curricula, heavy research agenda, and all-PhD faculty
-Working like a funnel, the top graduate schools receive the best graduates of the best undergraduate colleges

The U of T is Canada’s leading research university
-Canada has seen a process of educational reform similar to that described by Jencks and Riesman
-Partly thanks to the role of John Porter in promoting higher education

Performance Indicators for Governance — Governing Council
-Number of Canada Research Chairs

In Canada – especially Ontario – provincial funding has fallen behind
-In the last 25 years, the funding of higher education has decreased

A second problem facing educators: the non-academic (youth) subculture
-In North America, the youth subculture is anti-academic and anti-intellectual
-To verify this, check out TV channels, movies, and websites aimed at young demographic

The adolescent society
-James S. Coleman: “plight of education”
-Looked at the STUPIDITY of American adolescents

1.Students jude and reward appearance and a few other qualities (e.g. athletic ability) according to a widely shared student code
2.Nerds are ostracized because they uphold grading standards others are unable or unwilling to meet

The educational paradox:
-formal education is ever more important in shaping people’s life chances
-at the same time, teens are getting stupider!

Coleman’s sample
was impeccable

Teens hate school.
Even students from better-off families.
Why?

In a way, students behave like alienated workers.
They develop a collective response to demands by people in authority.

Crestwood Heights by Seeley
Undertaken in Forest Hill, an affluent community in Toronto
Very posh
The goal was to study “the culture of child under pressure for conformity”
Seeley was concerned about children’s mental health:

They are under so much pressure to perform.
What are the consequences for kids and parents?

Parents were upper class
professional or managerial
well off, very successful: typically a self-made man.

They viewed the kid as a problem to be solved.
How do they make their kids a shining success?

Careers are the priority
They teach their kids to be “perfect”.
Their kids need to be competitive and successful.

School is the central institution where you can train a perfect child.

Training for “bureaucratic crawl”:
Values shift from stress on individual achievement to stress on co-operation, other-direction, and a submergence of the individual in the group.

Tension for teachers, parents, and teachers.
Anxiety continues:
-North American middle-class parents and immigrant parents continue to drum into their children strong needs for achievement
-Develop anxiety about obtaining good grades, pleasing the teacher, and getting ahead
-How much anxiety is enough? How much anxiety is too much?

Week 5 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 11

Estimated Reading Time 00:10:11

Lecture 04

Families and socialization

“Did you enjoy the test? Was it good? Well it was character building.” -Teppy

Finally we’ll start social institutions!

2 Types of Families Defined
Nuclear family
-typically associated with industrialized society
-fairly small, inward-looking group of people
Extended family
-typically associated with preindustrial societies
-families in a single household with multiple generations

“What’s really interesting is the transition from extended families to nuclear families.” -Teppy

Study by William Goode.
What we’ve seen in the past 100 years: total change in dominant pattern of family life in Western world.

“What you’d see is a gradual convergence of family forms. Family everywhere is moving in this direction. And of course the question is ‘Why?'” -Teppy

*Major worldwide trends*:
1.Consumption patterns: self-sustaining
-Households and family life become insulated as compared to previous family models.

2.Universal trend toward reduced fertilities
-Smaller family sizes. Thanks to condoms!

3.Change in relationships between parents and children
-authority of parents have declined (no need for inheritance)
-families can’t control your access to income anymore.
-lack of financial control leads to total lack of control.
-reduction of patriarchy

4.Changing norms in interpersonal relations
-Increased acceptance of divorce, contraception, cohabitation, premarital sex, etc.

“And this is happening all over the world!” – Teppy
“It’s not that they don’t exist in preindustrial times. But the significant thing is that they have become part of our culture. Part of our norms.” – Teppy

Why these changes?
“How do you understand premarital sex?” -Teppy

Analysis of Goode:
1.Smaller families are more flexible. Families are fairly light and flexible in order to meet the needs of an industrial society.
2.More education for women. Women start challenging men for good jobs.
3.Changes in family form vary: are mediated by cultural and social conditions.

Basic Family Processes
Families, no matter what form or definition, share expected social processes
1.Dependency and Intimacy
Family members are intimate with and dependent on one another.
Intimacy != sex!
Intimacy == exposing your vulnerabilities, etc.
Of course all of these is relative. You’re more likely to go to your mom/dad for help than asking the dude sitting beside you in SOC103 for help.
2.Regulated sexuality
“Typically we expect that *some* members in the family that are having sex with each other. But we’d also expect that *some other members* in a family are *not* having sex with each other.” -Teppy
3.Routine protection
Families prevent bad things from happening to each other.
4.Unequal power
“A family is *rarely* an egalitarian unit.” -Teppy
Parents usually have more power than the children.

“I’m not interested in the legal definition of family. That’s largely irrelevant. I think it’s much more useful if we think about the family not in a legal definition, but in terms of its processes. I say that any group that meets these criteria is a family.” -Teppy

Family Troubles Are Common
Every family has problems! Some have more problems than others.
Families under the greatest stress are most likely to descend into conflict. Domestic violence are not unfamiliar.

Cohesive and Adaptable Families Do Best
Cohesive – members have strong identification with the family as a whole, and with one another.
Adaptable – members are more able to plan and make changes.
^Some traits of these families
1.Have open patterns of communication.
2.Use fair procedures to resolve conflicts
3.Use fair, *even* democratic processes for setting goals
“You can be fair without being democratic.” – Teppy
4.Family culture and ritual ties everyone together.
“I’m talking about a family that actively maintain and develop its culture.” – Teppy

Adaptability
e.g. family with drug addict.
Some families will never talk about this.
“Whenever you got deep secrets of a bad kind, the problems multiply. That’s not going to be a good family.” -Teppy

Two Types of Socialization Defined
Socialization = Primary Socialization + Secondary Socialization
Socialization is a lifelong social learning.
Primary socialization
-takes place in the early years of a person’s life
-fundamental, diffuse, and imposed.
“We’re talking about kids that are completely dependent (economically or otherwise) upon their parents. And their parents kind of have this unparalleled opportunity to shape them. To mould them. For better or for worse.” -Teppy
Secondary socialization
-after childhood
-specific and voluntary
-e.g. occupational socialization

Socialization is lifelong, but early socialization is critical
-One thing that can be said with certainty about socialization is that it goes on for a lifetime.
Primary + Secondary + Anticipatory + Resocialization
Resocialization:
Complete overhaul of your personality.
“It really strips your down and moulds you back again.” -Teppy

Through Good Socialization, People Learn to
-obey social rules
-complete school
-earn a living
-sustain close relations
-raise children themselves

“You may think that you are all cool and badass and stuff. But the fact is that you are all sitting here quietly and taking notes. That tells me that you’ve learned obedience. So what can I say? Somebody’s done their job.” -Teppy

People Learn to Make Between I and ME.
Theory by Mead.
I – refers to internal processes
ME – refers to external ones.
The “ME” is what is learned in interaction with others and the environment.
Other people’s attitudes, internalized in the self, constitute the ME.

“The ‘I’ is looking at the ‘ME’.” -Teppy
“It’s a strange experience! Sometimes when you are talking don’t you feel like there’s another ‘you’ floating above yourself saying ‘What the heck is this guy saying?!'” -Teppy

“If you take a Freudian approach — and I don’t mean sex — perhaps you’d gain some insight.” -Teppy

Another Early Step is the Learning of Gender Through Socialization.
-In the process of gender socialization, boys are typically given freedom, while girls are protected from harm.
-e.g. boys are usually given more freedom and girls are more protected from harm.

Soon, Children Are Learning Impersonal Obedience in Schools
-As part of the school’s “hidden curriculum”, children are supposed to learn punctuality, conformity, and obedience.
-The plan is not actually teaching you how to origami or paint with crayons but rather teach you obedience!
-Kindergarten == bootcamp?!
IS THIS THE HIDDEN PURPOSE OF U OF T !?!??!?!?!?!!?!?!?!?!?
Actual curriculum in business schools: teach you how to dress.

**”For example in Yale, there’s a wine tasting class.” -Teppy**

Different institutions have different focuses. e.g. IBM would want you to be a team player. U of T really doesn’t care one way or another.

Direct vs. Indirect (or Reactive) Socialization
-imprinting of social patterns on blank plates
Direct socialization: intended result of
“Kids are really good imitators. We will reward the good behaviour, and punish the bad behaviour. And we’ll end up with someone we wanted them to be.” – Teppy
-modelling and imitation,
-rewards for good behaviour
-punishments for bad behaviour

Indirect or reactive socialization:
“I’ve *actually* spent some time studying these.” -Teppy
“I’m really interested in bad parenting. As you might have guessed.” -Teppy
-abuse or neglect
-excessive punishment
-inconsistent parenting
parentification
“Something that I’ve become very interested in lately.” -Teppy
“Relatively understudied.” -Teppy
Basically: child becomes parent, parent becomes child.
e.g. Imagine you’re a 6 year old kid. And your father is an alcoholic. Your father wants you to clean up his mess and make him dinner.
So child takes on roles of parent. Can be emotional as well.

If a kid is put in that position, he’s likely not gonna do well.

Consequences of parentification
-Intense Anger: parentified children will have a love-hate relationship with their parent
-Difficulty with Adult Attachments: Parentified children, as adults, will have trouble connecting with friends, spouse, and children.
-trouble experiencing healthy intimacy in relationships.

Parenting Styles Make a Difference
The best parenting is authoritative: loving but firm
-some parents reason with their children — this is best
-others use treats or violence
-threats and violence do not predictably achieve the desired results and often achieve undesired results

“This is what research in the West suggest about the best parenting. We don’t know that much about parenting in the East.” -Teppy

Bad and Good Parenting in a Western Individualistic Culture like Canada:
BAD:
-Power assertion
-Love withdrawal (guilt trip) (tiger mom)
GOOD:
-Inductive: teaching by example; teaching by reason
-Looking for teaching moments: misbehaviour can be used as good “case studies”

(Diane) Baumrind’s Four Parenting Styles:
Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, Neglectful
(refer to picture)
-Research show that the most effective parenting strategy is authoritative, based on high demands and high responsiveness.
May work differently in non-western countries.

(Not that much research on it in non-Western societies.)
This one guy from Israel suggests that authoritarian parenting may not be as bad as it seems.
“I think he’s fudging the results.” -Teppy

What Do Parents Actually Do?
The average employed parent (age 25-64) devotes 1 hour per day (on average) caring for children and others.

Much of What Parents Do Is Indirect
Peers are important too.
But parents are much more influential in the long run. e.g. drug use — through family control of peer associations

Common Consequences of Bad Parenting
-Emotional Difficulties
–de

Is There a Universally Best

New Chinese Study Supports North American Findings…
“Pretty much confirming what I said.” -Teppy

Love and Punishment Matter.
-Results show that children in poor or conflict ridden families tend to act out more than other children (i.e., externalize problems).
-But they do so only if the parents are cold..

Warm is good! Punishment bad.
High levels of parental warmth produce fewer externalizing problems.

Consistent with Earlier Research

Predicts Externalizing Problems, not Internalizing Problems
-when kids are in the situation where there’s a lot of conflict they tend to externalize problems.
-but doesn’t really deal with depression, etc.

Why do some people commit antisocial or deviant act?
1.Shifting/uncertain rules
2.Impossible-to-follow rules
4.Faulty socializtion

Theories of faulty socialization
-theories of trauma and neglect
e.g. parentification is harmful
-theories of attachment
e.g. insecure attachement is harmful
-theories of weak social control
e.g. inadequate.. is harmful

Authoritarian Personality.
Theodor Adorno et al. (member of Frankfurt school of sociology)
-purpose: discover the roots of anti-Semitism
-measured authoritarianism with an “F-scale” (F for fascism)
-conclusion: racism and anti-Semitism associated with fascist tendencies

9 Characteristics
1.Conventionalism
2.Authoritarian Submission
3.Authoritarian Aggression
(That was 3)

Prejudice is a generalized tendency among authoritarian personalities
Prejudice is linked to political and social conservatism
Prejudice is related to a wide range of personal beliefs

Harsh Parenting Unintentionally Produces Authoritarian Children
Parents that:
-Demand unquestioning obedience
-Provide limited affection and respect
-Force the child to displace his/her anger on to “safe” targets
e.g. vulnerable people
-Force the child to sublimate his/her anger in fantasy objects or pointless, repetitive behaviour (ritual, convention)

Another Theory of Faulty Socialization, The Role of Trauma, Stress, and Poor Coping
“My own research (for about 13 years now).” -Teppy
Our 2010 study explored the transmission of problem gambling from parent to child, through a combination of
a) Childhood social learning – direct socialization
b) Childhood distress or trauma – indirect socialization
c) Current stresses and poor coping and supports

Proposed Influences on the Familial Transmission of Problem Gambling
(see picture)

Face-to-Face Interviews
We interviewed 200 adults, 150 of them with a gambling problem
-45 minute self-administered survey
-1 hour open-ended interview
even in the absence of direct socialization…
Gambling addiction results from the combination of
-Childhood trauma
-Adult stress
-Poor Adult coping
50 of each category, and 50 for control group.

The Dostoevsky Case: Direct Socialization Was Not Needed
“He’s probably the world’s most famous problem gambler.” -Teppy
-Freud’s written about him!
-Born in 1821
-His father, a depressed alcoholic, was NOT apparently a gambler
-Fyodor and his siblings were subject to rigid and cold treatment
-In early and middle life, Fyodor embraced a variety of extreme causes, including radical politics

“He was crazy about gambling! He even lost his newly-wed’s wedding gown on their honeymoon.” -Teppy

“His father was a real tyrant. Authoritarian! Gave him a ‘tiger dad’ sort of thing.” -Teppy

-epileptic
-arrested and imprisoned in Siberia
-impoverished
-frail physical help
-all sorts of causes
-poor coping skills
-at age of 50, he becomes a gambling maniac

His addiction lasted about 10 years.

“The Dostoevsky Effect” – by Lorne Tepperman.