Week 3 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 4

Estimated Reading Time 00:07:03

Lecture 3

Culture and acculturation

Multiple choice:
-don’t choose absolutes/extremes!
-avoid unfamiliar terms
-when in doubt, choose the longer answer

The controlling effects of culture
How does culture control our:
-perceptions and opinions?
-beliefs and values?
-goals and ambitions?

“We are making choices all the time, but all the choices we make are constrained.” -Teppy
“Culture structures our choices, beliefs, and opinions…” -Teppy

Culture is a choice-guiding system

Culture defines:
-Good and bad
-Right and wrong

“Our notions of right and wrong, beautiful and ugly, are cultural perceptions. They’re not fixed; they’re not universal; they’re not inevitable. Else there’d be no reason for social science.” – Teppy

“We live in a scientific civilization. In a scientific civilization there’s an attempt to develop norms.” -Teppy

Culture even has political effects
-Culture, when influenced by the state and modes of production, gives rise to *dominant ideology*.
-By influencing morality, it influences our behaviour.

“In our case, dominant ideology is a market ideology. Everything is up for exchange. Everything is priced. Some people will win, because they bring things to the market. Some people will lose, because they don’t. Ultimately what market ideology tells us is that those who win deserves to win and those who lose deserve to lose. We should respect the winners and look with contempt at the losers.” – Teppy

Cultures vary in what they teach us:
-Cultures teach different views about right and wrong choices
-That sometimes leads to cultural confusion or conflict
-It is often hard to hold *culturally relative* values
-we tend to be ethnocentric

“How is it possible for people to interact across cultural minds given our differences?” – Teppy

“In the 20th century and the 21st century, certainly cultural relativism is the predominant belief. Contrast that to the 19th century, there’s a predominant belief (especially in the West) of progress and colonization.” -Teppy

Moral evolution vs. cultural relativism
-Between 1870-1920 sociology moved away from assuming a moral evolution in human history
-Today it views cultural beliefs as non-rational and largely incomparable
-Must be understood and judged on their own terms

“It was the job of white colonizers to help less-developed savages to ‘realize the correct way to live’.” -Teppy

“That belief [cultural relativism] came to a serious reevaluation after the WWII.” – Teppy
e.g. Nazi and their culture.

Example: the subordination of women
e.g. Islamic dress code for women
“It is extremely difficult (I know it’s pretentious) for Westerners to view that in a culturally relative way!” – Teppy

Cultural change can be painful
-People who, in the process of acculturation, relinquish the home culture and reject the host culture are known as *marginal*
-e.g. hard to accept new views about women, gays, youth

“Probably the most painful experience is the marginal. They are trying to relinquish their home culture. But they either have rejected, or are not yet accepted, in the host culture.” – Teppy

An identity crisis may result
-In the transition associated with acculturation, and identity crisis is most likely to occur after migration and cultural isolation
-This identity crisis may be brief or prolonged, but painful

Traditionally, “culture” was equated with “civility”
-Culture: from the Latin verb colere – to till the soil (i.e. to work the land, or improve and refined the land in order to grow crops)

“We are blocks. For us to be in the world, we have to be ‘cultivated’ by our parents. We have to cultivate ourselves to have the skills and knowledge to make social life possible.” -Teppy
[Tabula Rasa]

Today, we hold a broader definition of culture
-Culture is the sum total of all products of the human mind.
-Cultural products can be
-concrete or abstract
-individual or collective
-material or immaterial

“When I decide how I’m dressing tonight, which I’m sure you’ll all agree to be very beautiful, I am influenced by social and cultural norms!” – Teppy

Culture never stands still
-Culture is always changing
e.g. fashions in clothing, speech, names of children
-Ideas of beauty change over time too

New cultural practices and ideas diffuse through the population
-the curve normally associated with culture of diffusion processes is referred to as the S-curve
-We can speculate about the social processes that produce this pattern
Early adopters -> opinion leaders -> take off (contagion) -> late adopters

Innovations are always in the minority
-In the cultural diffusion process, approximately 2.5% will be “innovators” and 16% will be laggards
-It is interesting that innovation is similar, no matter what is changing
-but don’t underestimate the effects of marketing

Cultural Products include
-they are all modes of “discourse”
-habitual ways of speaking about and understanding a topic
-every cultural “text” consists of key ideas, symbols, and concepts

e.g. *Anna Karenina* movie adaptations change through time.

What does culture express? (What is the discourse?) Consider art:
-Any work of art expresses at least three things:
-A particular genre (landscape)
-A particular period (early 20th century)
-A particular artist (Tom Thomson)
-Also, class position

Art and Cultural Capital
You learn “good taste”
-In this way you acquire *cultural capital*
-Cultural capital provides access to valued interpersonal connections
-People with more cultural capital get more education, get richer, marry “up”

“Cultural capital relates culture to class.” -Teppy

More knowledge of high culture == more cultural capital

Perceptual filter
-We can view culture as a perceptual filter, allowing us to see some things and ignore others
-Cultures teach us that some things are beautiful and others are ugly, some are sensible and others are ridiculous
-Consider the following

Art – a cultural product – distinguishes people by “taste”
Low art (and Kitsch)/folk art/high art

“People position themselves in society with the art that they display, the beer that they drink, etc etc.” – Teppy

The re-invention of taste from above
-According to Veblen, cultural tastes change because the upper class repeatedly invents new cultural elements to distinguish it from the middle class

We learn “habitus” in order to distinguish ourselves by class
-In Bourdieu’s theory of cultural capital, “habitus” refers to a body of learned skills needed for distinction
-The accumulation of such learned skills creates a fund of cultural capital

“To distinguish themselves from the poor is what the rich are always trying to do.” -Teppy

Cultural literacy is basic; cultural capital gives people and advantage
-Cultural capital increases (apparent) social status
-e.g. which fork to use with salad?
-Cultural literacy improves knowledge base and interaction skills
-basic requirement
-e.g. who is Hamlet?

e.g. “The Code” – written by a U of T scholar about biblical metaphors, etc. references throughout Western history.

Some cultures (including religions) cover many countries
-Nation-staes are sometimes based on a common culture

Canadian culture
-Canadian and American cultures have many similarities
-There are distinctive norms, attitudes, and beliefs!

The Canadian Way
-more secular
-more socially progressive
-more egalitarian (e.g. Gini indices, tax rates)

Canadians are somewhat more realistic, modest, and secular
-e.g. Americans are much more likely thn other people to believe that people get rewarded for their effort

Distinctive feature of canada: Multiculturalism
-government policy
-it encourages the maintenance of cultures from immigrants’ countries of origin
Pro: ease of assimilation
Con: hinders formation of Canadian identity

Cross-cultural comparisons help us understand our own culture
e.g. Americans vs. French in the restaurant

Cultural Role of Jokes and Humour
-In every culture, jokes and humour let us discuss things that are feared or hated
-Joking is a socially accepted means of rule-breaking
-Since cultures vary in what people fear and hate, they joke about different things, or about the same things in different ways
-Here’s a North American “battle of sexes” joke

Russian joke
-many jokes about newly rich Russians

German jokes
-jokes about other nationalities and regions

Send in a joke!!
Deadline: midnight February 8.

BEST JOKE WINS A $10 GIFT CARD FROM TIM HORTONS!!!!!!?!??!?!!1111?1?!11!!?1!!!1!!!!

Cultural globalization vs. nationalism
Three processes suggest the coming of a global (trans-national) culture
1.Scientific and technological innovation
2.Polycentric cultures and policies
3.Homogenized human ambitions

Growing cultural complexity
“Global culture” featuring:
-diverse elements
-interactions between elements
-interdependence between elements (division of labour)

System-changing cultural processes
Certain social and cultural institutions are fundamentally world-changing
These institutions include:
-free markets
-democratic elections
-rule of law
-scientific inquiry
-technological innovation

Consider the role of science in changing the world

Merton’s model of the “culture of science”
-organized skepticism


Week 2 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 3

Estimated Reading Time 00:11:28

Lecture 02

The Dramaturgical Approach
-Think of social life as theatrical production, with costumes, scripts, audiences, and roles.
-Social scripts define how we are to act; also, who is an accepted part of “the cast” and who is not
-Scripts give us the *general outline* of what to say and do, but not the details

Theory by Goffman.
“He was a very very weird guy.” – Tepperman
“He wasn’t an endearing guy, but more like a psycho. I can say that because he’s dead.” – Tepppy
One suspicious guy.

All our social activities are situated. We have different expectations of people depending on location. Every social situation has its own ritual, etc.

*The dramaturgical approach* is concerned with the relationship between roles, scripts, and identities.
(Well, more like a metaphor. Actually all theorizing is metaphorical.)

Identities are very idiosyncratic and personal. We may never guess what a person’s identity may be. But the dramaturgical approach says that people’s identity is shaped by the roles they play. There’s a connection between the roles we play and the way we think about ourselves.
Outside -> inside.

The dramaturgical approach is an assumption. But now that we’ve made an assumption – is it true? Does it work?
(The scientific method.)

Why do we need scripts?
-Most of us have *some* idea how to act in certain situations.
-e.g. dating – we never were handed a script before we started dating!
-But we don’t always do this well! We need a rough “script”.
-scripts provide guidelines for what to do and say
-breach these expectations can lead to interrupted interaction
-scripts are found in etiquette books and magazines, etc.

Roles == Identities ???!!??!?!
Roles shape identities!

Labelling theory
We gain an understanding of who w are by seeing how other people view or treat us.
**looking-glass self**
Founded by Charles Horton Cooley (1902)
The way others treat you affects how you treat yourself.
e.g. parents
“We read it in other people’s eyes. We know whether we’re a troll or whether we’re a goddess from other people’s eyes.” – Teppy

“We are social beings. We want at least some people to think that we are socially valuable.” – Teppy
Negative feedback from society can be incapacitating!
e.g. Right after weird haircut.

*Secondary deviance* may include a career in rule-breaking
*secondary deviance*: response to a previous deviance act
(*primary deviance*: breaks (moral) rules.)

Whatever the reasons for our initial deviance, labelling can lead to repeated (ie. secondary) deviance.

Deviance -> Labelling -> Change in Self Concept <-> Change in Group affiliation (eg. joining a gang) -> (secondary) Deviance

This is the argument used in support for separate treatment for juvenile delinquency!

Embracement vs. Distance
-Usually roles and identities almost overlap
-Role embracement: a person willingly accepts both the social role and the identity associated with it
(“Endorse our engagement in it.” -Teppy)
-Sometimes a person takes on the role but signals separation from the values associated with that role
(“I’m gonna go through the motions, but I don’t wanna be here.” -Teppy)
e.g. Kid distancing himself from their parents near friends.

Roles become identities through internalization
-identities are based on social roles we play
-after a while, we internalize the roles we play so they become central parts of our identity
“I haven’t see formulas. But maybe there is one.” – Teppy
-in time, the new role/identity begins to structure your life
-you willingly take on other duties associated with the role
-e.g. becoming a “serious student”

Teppy’s story:
In high school he had a feeling that teachers don’t have a life outside of school! They materialize out of telephone booths or something every morning first period.
In second year graduate school Teppy had a sudden realization that HE IS A SOCIOLOGIST! He can’t draw the line anymore! :O

Learning roles is a lifelong effort
-George Herbert Mead: people adopt new roles throughout their lifetime
-they learn roles from people around them, as well as from society at large
-Role-taking is a dynamic process
-we enter and leave roles throughout life
-therefore, we enter and leave identities!
-some departure are hard: e.g. the military widow, the closet gay person

Teppy’s study. Military widows.
-tend to live on military base, all their friends are on the base
-the things they can do are extremely limited! traditional community.
-once your husband dies you need to move out of military base! You need to find another man! You need to find work! Put your kids to school! Huge changes!

Role-making vs. Role-taking
-we are playing scripts, but we are also inventing stuff!
-“role-making”: cooperative creative process that works through interaction
-people agree to invent new social roles together
-to break rules of dress or behaviour together
-but the above agreement does not bind the rest of society
-to survive, a social script must become widely know and accepted in the population (to have sociological significance)
-needs to form part of stable subculture
-that’s why people form subcultures

Influence of Peers
-different kinds of people influence us to different degrees throughout our lives
-the strongest influences on an adolescent’s self-concept are peers
-affect roles we make and take

Role Conflict
-conflict occurs when a person has to satisfy the demands of two or more incompatible or contradictory roles
-playing one role necessarily undermines or prevents playing the other
-e.g. being a good friend vs. being a good student

Role Strain
-role strain occurs when two behaviours associated with the same role are incompatible
-e.g. being a successful student without appearing to be nerdy, uncool, or overcommitted

Dealing with conflict
1.Prioritize social roles
-placing priority on some roles and giving others lesser importance
2.Adopt a master status
-take one role and making it *supreme* over all others
-keeping social groups separate to avoid humiliation
-e.g. keeping parents and friends separate
“For example your friends may say: ‘why does your mother eat so much?'” – Teppy

Another way of dealing with dealing with conflict: secrecy
-George Simmel was the first sociologist to study secrecy
-Our “first world” is the recognized world of socially acceptable activities
-Our “second world” includes (usually) hidden deviant activities others cannot see most of the time (e.g. sexual affairs)
-Secrecy is a normal part of social relations

Primary and Secondary Groups:
-Cooley (1909) Distinguished between two types of groups
-primary groups are characterized by small size and emotional intimacy between members
e.g. family
-secondary groups are medium-to-large in size and may not always command our primary social allegiance
e.g. SOC103 class in con hall
e.g. teams, bands, and gangs.

Considering TBG
-Despite their different purposes, they all have
-leadership (for survival)
-rules/norms (you don’t do this; you do that)
-roles (division of labour)
-TBG differ is some respects: e.g.
-differences in goals and activities
-differences in social legitimacy
-But these differences don’t matter sociologically, given the similarities

All TBG offer people the following:
That’s why people voluntarily join and stay!

The glue: peer pressure
-people want to win (and keep) the esteem of their friends
-they want to obey the rules their friends obey (and break the rules their friends break)
-they are hungry for social acceptance outside their family

The value of organization and leadership
-All group activities benefit from organization and leadership
-problems do not solve themselves
-cooperation is mobilized best with direction
no group exists for more than 5 minutes before they have a sense of predictability and structure

“Whether it’s a team, a band, or a bang… Yeah, a bang would work like that too.” – Teppy
The best organization involves the best division of labour
-splitting up the work into manageable parts
-putting the right people in the right roles
-rewarding good performance

Happens in every kind of group – sociologically important!

Social Networks
-Another social structure of interest to sociologists
-imagine 20 people connectives, directly or indirectly, to one another
-direct connections: links of kinship, friendship, and acquaintance among all 20 people
-within this set of 20 people, there can be 190 difference paired connections (20 choose 2)
**there are some individuals with lots of links – significant to businesspeople!

The value of weak ties
-information, social support, and other valuable resources flow through weakly tied networks
-Mark Granovetter (1974) argues that weakly tied networks may be even more useful than strongly tied network, based on many direct links
-weakly tied networks have a vast outreach
-connect large numbers of people at a few removes
(that’s how people find the best jobs!)
“In fact, it’s [jobs are] never from your best friend!” – Teppy

Strong ties vs. Weak ties
-strong ties have emotional intensity
-therefore, strong ties are needed when important favours are needed
-however, weak ties have the merit of vast outreach
-good when varied information is needed

Weak ties overestimate?
-depends on ethnic groups!
-more recent research says that weak ties and strong ties are nearly equal, and in other respects strong ties are superior

Milgram’s small world study
-1967, psychologist Stanley Milgram sent information packet to randomly selected individuals in Omaha or Wichita
-they included basic information about a target person in Boston
-if the starting person did not personally know the target, he/she was to send the packet to a friend or relative who was more likely to know the target

-he/she was then directed to sign his name on the roster and forward the packet to that person
-Also mailed a postcard to the researchers so that they could track the chains progress toward the target

On average, the average path length of 5.5 or 6.

Take-home message
-the “six degrees phenomenon” depends on a few extraordinary people – “connectors” – with large networks of contacts and friends
-these “connectors” link otherwise unconnected individuals (i.e., the majority)
-as a result, the big world is a set of connected “small worlds”

Network “location” makes a difference
-What you know – ie. what information you get – depends on whether you are in the network’s
-So, people located in different parts of the network will view the world differently

Why is this important?
Most information we receive about the world is *indirect*, not *direct*
Therefore, most learning depends on our social (network) connections:
-number, density, stability

Stars, Brokers, and Small Worlds
-the “small world” property of all social networks:
-people are indirectly tied to everyone else at a few removes
-“Stars” or “connectors” are important

Cliques = self-aware clumps within networks
-a group of tightly interconnected people
-a friendship circle
-members feel positive sentiments for one another

Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies
-Organization: a group of people coordinated by communication and leadership to achieve a common goal
e.g. a basketball team
-Formal Organization: a group of people coordinated by communication and leadership to achieve a common goal USING WRITTEN RULES
e.g. a government
“Bureaucracies are the most powerful institutions in society.” – Teppy

Organizations and Networks
-A formal organization can usefully be viewed as a social network with a small world design, plus different levels of authority (ie. a power backbone)
-like other networks, organizations contain clumps and cliques
You can’t say who the leader is in a network! No hierarchy in network.

Why formal organizations tend to be powerful and long-lasting
-formalized roles and relationship provide a division of labour intended to gain a specific set of objectives
e.g. Catholic church
-usually, has access to more resources and more complex technologies than informal groups or organizations

Any organization you look at: #1 concern is SURVIVAL.
They may have goals, but in the end their #1 goal is survival.

Weber’s idealized bureaucracy:
7 features
1.division of labour
2.hierarchy of positions
3.formal system of rules
4.reliance on written documents
5.separation of person from office
(everybody in the organization relates to the office, not the office holder. e.g. in army, you salute the uniform, not the person.)
6.hiring and promotion based on technical merit
(nothing works this way)
7.protection of careers
(the office holder are hired based on written criteria, so people’s careers are protected so long as they follow what’s written down)

Job satisfaction not guaranteed
bureaucracies are not created to be charming and fun.

Formal organizations are completely scripted social forms
-official rules and impersonality separate personal matters from business matters
-promote efficiency
-written rules allow an organization to deal with problem uniformly; each time they arise, the rules simplify situation with objective, neutral, and predictable solutions

Formal organizations => formality
-the detailed (top-down) command associated with bureaucracy is intended to produce formality, compliance, and discipline
-in-the-field (mission) operation is usually quite different

Problems with the bureaucracy
-sheer size may induce irrationalities
-no one person knows all the rules
-different offices may act independently of each other (coordination)
-rule by offices undermines personal responsibility for decisions the organization takes

Bureaucracies tend to be large, immoral organizations
(successful killing machines)
Bureaucracy has an enormous potential for promoting human progress, but also enslavement, exploitation, and cruelty.

“Bureaucracy is the most powerful force for enslavement ever known to humanity.” – Teppy
“But it’s also a powerful force for good!” – Teppy

Total Institutions as ultimate bureaucracies
-total institutions are extreme examples of bureaucratization
-based on principles of efficiency and procedural rigidity
-negate value of democratic participation
-objectify human beings
-teach inmates how to get around the rules
-make inmates more able to survive INSIDE the institution than OUTSIDE it

Erving Goffman’s Asylums
How do organizations committed to controlling and changing us affect os?

“total institutions”
-all follow similar organizational principles
-exert total control
-authorities watch the inmates 24/7
-TI include mental hospitals, prisons, barracks, etc.

Week 1 Lecture Notes – Starting Points Ch. 2

Estimated Reading Time 00:10:46

Cities, Populations, and Environments

Teppy: people start talking about these at the very end of the course BUT NOT ME! There’s a good reason.

All human beings die. D:
Society has to cope with death
so social institutions need to cope with death
and they need to deal with people being born
the study of flow of people and births and deaths and migration is demography.

I’m gonna teach you demography today.

Teppy: In truth I have studied demography and demography geeks are the worst. They only think about three things. Births, deaths, and migrations.
But it’s much more quantifiable. So much more scientific. People are either dead or alive, either here or there, and that’s all demographers talk about!

Important generalizations:

-SIZE MATTERS: BIG social units work differently
e.g. con hall
-RAPIDLY CHANGING social units work differently
e.g. a class with 5 new students entering and 5 old students leaving every day.
-HETEROGENEOUS social units work differently
e.g. class with all asians vs. class with people from all over the place.
(not only ethnicity, but can also be social background, economic status, etc.)

Cooperation becomes more difficult for the above adjectives.

Demographers talk about:
-change affects size and composition

6% of all the people who were ever born, over the entire course of human history, are alive today.
“A large share of them are in Convocation hall.” — Teppy

-negative: large population puts more pressure on the natural
how do you quantify the carrying capacity of the world?
but there is a sense that there could come a time where there really would be TOO MUCH people.

-positive: large population is more likely to invent new technologies
Statistically, there’d be more genius.

“You understand what I’m saying? Is it complicated? Not complicated? Not complicated. I took a vote! I took an instantaneous vote!” — Teppy

RAPID population growth is an issue. It’s more difficult to adjust to meet the demands of rapidly increasing population.

Populations with the highest growth rate tend also to be poor and uneducated. If you couple that with economic underdevelopment, lack of infrastructure, etc., that’d just be BAD!
There are shortages of resources.
“There’s real population pressure.” – Teppy

-Aging of the population
– non retirement of old workers
– young men LIKE ME will be unemployed
“There are people like me who will keep on working until someone puts a bullet in me. JUST KIDDING.” – Teppy
“There will be young people just waiting for me to die!” – Teppy
“Especially young men. They will tend to cause a lot more trouble than young women would.” – Teppy

-Selection and assimilation of immigrants
– Low fertility rate in Canada. So we need immigrants.
– And we need immigrants to produce 1) labour 2) children.
– Which immigrants? What skills? How many? How do you assimilate?
“In Canada we haven’t figured it out.” – Teppy

-Shortage of marriage partners
“Which is sort of an amusing thing if you think about it. But it probably won’t be so funny if you find yourself in a shortage of marriage partners. 😦 ” – Teppy

THOMAS MALTHUS (1766 – 1834)
The first population theorist
His father was a utopian socialist. Very interested in social change + reform + redistribution. To solve poverty. Concern in England. Effects of industrial revolution.
Malthus, according to Teppy, wants to prove his father wrong.

-The relationship between population increase (geometric) and food increase (linear)
-Population is too large; will exceed food supply and deaths will result.
-A natural limit to how much the population can expand
-Need to be careful with utopian dreams

1.Human beings love to eat.
2.Human beings love to have sex.
3.When people get married they have sex like all day every day.

If uncontrolled, population tends to increase geometrically.
Food available is a function of available land. Eventually we’d run out! (He didn’t know about genetic engineering and new seeds and etc.)

Any geometric series will outgrow any arithmetic series. Inevitably.
“Which means that people will starve. Invariably.” – Teppy

Redistribution of wealth? Poor people can now procreate! And so you’d simply have taken all the money, redistributed them, and consumed it up in the production of children!
Positive and preventive checks
Positive checks: disease, famine, or war
Preventive checks: delayed marriage, abstinence (PREFERRED BY MALTHUS)

Malthus did not believe in contraception. According to Malthus, as soon as people get married they have sex and make babies. So the only way is to reduce marriage. And you reduce marriage by reducing people’s income.


In industrial societies, the growth rate slows down dramatically until population starts to shrink.
The GNP per capita increases due to
-voluntary birth control

Birth rates and death rates decline

“Demographic transition”: decline in death rate and then decline in birth rate
Public health measures, nutrition, etc. (didn’t have to do with doctors, etc., it’s about the bigger things)

Once death rate falls you’re more sure that your children will survive so you don’t have to create so many children anymore.

People are less incentivized to produce children because they become costs. Doesn’t help with household. Need costs for education, etc. “Children are a pain in the ass! Why would you have a bunch of them?” – Teppy

Until 1750 population relatively unchanging.
only 800 mill in 1750 but 7 billion today.

A major shift in world population
Will continue to rise but less quickly than before.
More people will live in the South than the North.
Just by virtue of the amount of people, world power balance may shift.

Where the growth will occur
In developed countries natural growth will decline below 0.
Most of world’s population growth during this century will happen in developing nations.

Population and power
A question that demographers don’t think about very much. So I invite anyone here who doesn’t know what to do with their lives yet to think about trying to answer this question.

Population change affects population composition
Births deaths and migrations change composition.

There will be continued need for immigrants to maintain the workforce. There will be more elderly people – health care.
So it’s an important question.

Population pyramids tell the tale
The most distinctive visual aids in demography.
Some say you can read the history of humanity through population pyramids.

Different societies have different structures [shapes of pyramids]. e.g. Fort McMurray in Alberta – where they dig out oil. So lots of young men.
“Frontiertown. Men go there.” – Teppy, with a gorilla pose.

U.S. – a more “rectangular” distribution. Roughly the same proportion for every one of every age. How?

Germany – inverse pyramid.
“People live to a thousand years old but no one makes babies.” – Teppy

How would you produce a rectangular distribution?
-have exactly the same number of births and deaths. And no one dies until age 80. And at age 80 everyone dies.

Canada’s population structure
It’s more like a diamond. With a bulge for baby boomers.
“Eventually they’ll finally all die off and we’ll have a rectangular distribution.” – Teppy
“quite an incredible human invention” – Teppy
Every time we solve problems we create new ones.

Ulrich Beck: Risk Society: Toward a New Modernity
-Beck labelled contemporary society a “risk society”
-in advanced modernity, society dominated by man-made risks
-modern people have begun to question the benefits from technology

“My wife has been reading about that there’s been a 50% decline in male fertility.” – Teppy

The natural environment
-Everything is competing to survive
-That’s how nature works.
-humans compete too (with nature, with each other, etc.)

Where do natural disasters occur?
-The most common and harmful disasters seem to occur in less-developed countries.
-So poorest people in least developed countries are doubly disadvantaged.

What causes the rise in carbon emissions?
-The growth in world population and total carbon emissions since 1825 is nearly identical
-Causal relationship

Water shortage
-world is starting to feel the pinch
-people are dying from lack of water
-Canada is okay. But US wants our water and US usually gets what it wants.
-so water might be violently sought. Because if you don’t have water, you die.
-new technology: desalination, etc. But should they fail, we die.

Classic Study: The Limits to Growth
“This is probably the more depressing part of this lecture. If you are optimistic you’ll probably end up depressed. If you are depressed you’ll probably end up suicidal.” – Teppy

Donella Meadows, Dennis Meadows, et al (MIT)
Commissioned by the Club of Rome
Using computer simulation. With lots of data. Lots of theories. Smart people at MIT. To track future of human race.

Interested in the interactions between
1.rapid population growth
2.deteriorating environment
3.depletion of non-renewable resources
4.accelerating industrialization
5.spreading malnutrition

The canvas is the entire world. Huge advance from Malthus.

-most of the variables including population increases exponentially
-ability of technology to increase available resources grew linearly

CONCLUSION: we’re screwed.
If everything continues at the current (1970s) rate…
Humanity will reach “limit to growth” on this planet sometime in the next 100 years.

2004 conclusions of this simulation.
An updated 2004 edition of this book claimed IT IS NOW TOO LATE for sustainable development.
In 1972 we still had a chance. But you didn’t listen to us did you?! So now suck on it you snobs. You deserved it. You should’ve listened to us. You’ve had your chance.

“Saving the world is actually incredibly hard. Easier is the task of pretending to save the world. So I urge you to spend your life pretending to save the world.” -Teppy

Where people settle will influence the location of population and environmental problems and costs of imports,etc.

Cities: a universalizing invention
-Humans are constantly finding new ways to build a protective artificial environment
-City life is similar from one to another and different from non-city lives.
e.g. you don’t find gay bars at countrysides.

Cities as built environments
Cities are human-made environments that interact with and intervene in the relation between humans and the natural environment
-developed gradually, without planning
-rise of cities coincided with rise of markets and states
– growth possible due to excess food

As long as you have commerce and political administration, you have cities. They need a food surplus because there’s nothing in city that produces food.

The historic growth of cities
-alternative to feudal, agricultural relationships.
-historically, cities have been self-governing places
-provides economies of scale – facilities

“In cities, nobody owned you!” – Teppy
People fled to cities because they wanted to be free!

Cities and city-life
After 1750 human life became increasingly urban.
Growth of industrialization implies growth of industrial cities.
-division of labour
-production of wealth
-social inequality

“Living in cities is really hard if you don’t know how to do it.” -Teppy

Mechanical vs. Organic Solidarity
-large city and small village cannot be any more different
-“mechanical solidarity” applies only to small homogeneous communities

Rural: strong social ties, weak interdependence
Urban: weak social ties, strong interdependence

DURKHEIM argued that interdependence is a necessary consequence to the functionality of cities, due to its weak social ties
“People need to be glued together by their differences instead of their similarities.” – Teppy
Organic solidarity.

As cities become larger and larger, with great diversity and rapid turnover, the city’s built environment conflicts with the natural environment in many harmful ways
Urbanization process more profound consequences (to the environment, etc.) than any other form of demographic change

Cities as rich neighbours
-often been richer, more powerful, more “immoral” than their rural neighbours

Teppy argues: hostility between Alberta and Ontario, the Harper government (based in Alberta) and the rest of Canada, is a form of this tension.

Urban living and public health
-in early times cities often have massive health problems

Cities have advantages

-urbanization increasing throughout the world
-increasing number of megacities (e.g. Mexico city)
-it’s not about megacities, but then most people live in cities of 500 000 people or fewer

Traffic issues and commuting
-growing number live in Greater Metropolitan Area
-Many residents of a GMA live in surrounding rural areas

The concentric ring theory
-when people look at a lot of data they attempt to simply it
-people tend to commute into from outside suburbs
-the concentric ring theory attributable to Burgess applies to many cities, especially to chicago and cities like Chicago
-Doesn’t apply as well to non-American cities, where more people live downtown

This model holds for most American cities. Not true for Canadian or European cities.

Loop 1: downtown
Loop 2: Factory
Loop 3: Zone of transition
Loop 4: Working class zone
Loop 5: residential zone
Loop 6: commuter zone
(with one being the most inward)

“What process would create a city like this? I’ll ask you to think about that.” -Teppy